Can J Urol. 2009 Apr;16(2):4576-9.
Female circumcision: history, medical and psychological complications, and initiatives to eradicate this practice.
Shah G, Susan L, Furcroy J.
Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
Female circumcision – a procedure where the parts of the female genitals are removed, which is also known as female genital cutting (FGC) or female genital mutilation (FGM) – continues to be practiced in more than 28 African countries. It is estimated that 80-100 million women have been circumcised. We performed a review of the literature to examine the history of female circumcision, its medical and psychological consequences, and government and non-government educational initiatives that are currently being taken to eradicate this practice.