Sexual and Marital Therapy. 2002, 17(2):161-170.
Female genital mutilation: cultural and psychological implications.
Whitehorn J, Ayonrinde O & Maingay S
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is widely practised in several regions of the world. It is often associated with physical, psychological, sexual and social sequelae. Migration of persons from cultures that actively practice FGM to the UK and other Western countries increases the chances that clinicians will be faced with patients who have undergone this procedure. Clinical presentations often occur against a background of differences in culture and social identity, which may pose a challenge to any form of intervention. Perceptions of normalcy, human rights violation and gender roles may also differ. This paper discusses historical, cultural, gender and identity issues associated with FGM and its psychological and sexual implications.