Midwifery, 2013, 29(8), 73-77
Female genital mutilation and female genital schistosomiasis-bourouwel, the worm: Traditional belief or medical explanation for a cruel practice?
Wacker J, Zida A, Sitz C, Schweinfurth D, Briegel J
Female genital mutilation (FGM), defined as the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia for ritual or religious reasons, is routinely practised by ethnic groups in more than 20 countries across the North African savannah as well as in Egypt, the southern part of the Arab peninsula, Malaysia and Indonesia. The total number of women mutilated has been estimated 100–140 million (WHO, 2008; cf. 85–115 million: Dehne et al., 1997). In Africa, three million young women are at risk to be circumcised annually (WHO, 2008).