Female circumcision as a public health issue

The New England Journal of Medicine. 1994;Sept 15:712-716FREE

Female circumcision as a public health issue

Toubia N


In many civilizations, certain surgical procedures have profound cultural and social meanings. Male circumcision, for example, has deeb importance as a symbol of religious and ethnic identity and has played a major part in the political and social history of many peoples. Female circumcision has particularly strong cultural meaning because it is closely linked to women’s sexuality and their reproductive role in society…

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