Category Archives: News

Female Genital Mutilation as a Concern for Special Operations and Tactical Emergency Medical Support Medics

J Spec Oper Med. 2017 Winter;17(4):14-17.

Female Genital Mutilation as a Concern for Special Operations and Tactical Emergency Medical Support Medics.

Wittich AC.

ABSTRACT

Female genital mutilation (FGM), frequently called female genital cutting or female circumcision, is the intentional disfigurement of the external genitalia in young girls and women for the purpose of reducing libido and ensuring premarital virginity. This traditional, nontherapeutic procedure to suppress libido and prevent sexual intercourse before marriage has been pervasive in Northern Africa, the Middle East, and the Arabian peninsula for over 2,500 years. FGM permanently destroys the genital anatomy while frequently causing multiple and serious complications. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics proposed a classification system of FGM according to the specific genital anatomy removed and the extensiveness of genital disfigurement. Although it has been ruled illegal in most countries, FGM continues to be performed
worldwide. With African, Asian, and Middle Eastern immigration to the United States and Europe, western countries are experiencing FGM in regions where these immigrants have concentrated. As deployments of Special Operations Forces (SOF) increase to regions in which FGM is pervasive, and as African, Asian, and Middle Eastern immigration to the United States increases, SOF and Tactical Emergency Medical Support (TEMS) medics will necessarily be called upon to evaluate and treat complications resulting from FGM. The purpose of this article is to educate SOF/TEMS medical personnel about the history, geographic regions, classification of procedures, complications, and medical treatment of patients with FGM.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

 

Management of health outcomes of female genital mutilation: Systematic reviews and evidence syntheses.

FREEInt J Gynaecol Obstet. 2017 Feb;136 Suppl 1:1-2. doi: 10.1002/ijgo.12041.

Management of health outcomes of female genital mutilation: Systematic reviews and evidence syntheses.

Sunday-Adeoye I, Serour G.

EXTRACT

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a harmful practice without any known benefit. The true burden of FGM is dfficult to determine owing to the lack of reliable data on girls younger than 15 years; women and girls in the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Latin America; and on immigrant populations continuing the practice in Europe, North America, and Australia.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Reshaping the global health agenda: female genital cutting.

FREEMed Educ Online. 2016 Jan;21(1):31023. doi: 10.3402/meo.v21.31023.

Reshaping the global health agenda: female genital cutting.

Al-Saadi N, Khan H, Auckburally S, Al-Saadi A, Khan T.

EXTRACT 

Female genital cutting (FGC) is described by the World Health Organization as ‘all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons’. Its practice is common in at least 29 countries across Africa and the Middle East– currently affecting 125 million girls and women worldwide. Due to globalization, specifically increasing trends in migration, instances of FGC are increasingly common in the developed world. For example, 137,000 girls residing in the UK in 2011 were found to have undergone FGC. Despite this, the increasing trend of FGC in the developed world has not been uniformly met with suitable mechanisms to support these patients…

This article is available in this LINK

Circumcision and excision: Towards a non-law of bioethics?

J Int Bioethique. 2015 Jul;26(3):63-75, 263.

Circumcision and excision: Towards a non-law of bioethics? [Article in French]

Delage PJ

ABSTRACT

This article defines the practices of circumcision and excision, and studies their foundations. Then, it considers some of the conflicts (of rights, laws and cultures) inherent to these practices. Finally, it suggests that the solution to these conflicts may not lie in the law, but in a non-law of bioethics.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Female genital mutilation and reporting duties for all clinical personnel

Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2016 Jul;77(7):419-23. doi: 10.12968/hmed.2016.77.7.419.

Female genital mutilation and reporting duties for all clinical personnel.

Cropp G, Armstrong J

ABSTRACT

Female genital mutilation is illegal. It is now mandatory for health-care professionals to report female genital mutilation to the police. Professionals caring for women and girls of all ages must understand how female genital mutilation presents, and what action to take.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Fighting to combat FGM

Nurs Times. 2016 Jun 22-28;112(25):26.FREE

Fighting to combat FGM.

Cordova S

EXTRACT

Joanne McEwan is truly applying her knowledge to help women affected by FGM

joanne mc ewan

Joanne McEwan plays many roles in her daily life – nurse, mother, and health visitor in the community of Oxfordshire, to name a few. Her schedule is already full, but that hasn’t stopped her from adding yet another title to the list: app developer, for an app that will help women who have been affected by female genital mutilation, or FGM.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Educating about female genital mutilation.

Educ Prim Care. 2016 Oct 28:1-4. [Epub ahead of print]

Educating about female genital mutilation.

Holmes V, Farrington R, Mulongo P

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is illegal in the UK but nevertheless practised in some immigrant communities. Effective educational approaches are required to inform policy and to direct resources, often in the voluntary sector. The opinions in this article arise from discussions with professionals and members of FGM-practising communities. We highlight the importance of sharing experiences and expertise across health and social care professionals as well as working in partnership with culturally sensitive Non-Governmental Organisations. Enlisting the support of men and religious leaders is crucial to breaking down barriers in male-dominated communities and dispelling myths about FGM being a ‘requirement’ of faith.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Female genital mutilation: the role of medical professional organizations

Int Urogynecol J. 2016 Nov 17. [Epub ahead of print]

Female genital mutilation: the role of medical professional organizations

Bazi T

ABSTRACT

Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to alteration of the external genitalia of girls without medical benefit. It is estimated by United Nations agencies that 200 million living girls and women have been subjected to different forms of FGM worldwide. Despite the criminalization of the procedure in the vast majority of countries where it is practiced, the decline in the incidence of this ritual is far from satisfactory. Immediate and long-term ill effects are well documented. Most publications of relevance originate from countries outside the map of FGM. In addition, there are major gaps in research related to this issue, considering the magnitude of the problem. International medical organizations and societies should assume their responsibility by providing a platform to professionals engaged in the prevention and treatment of the consequences of FGM, especially those living in the communities where the practice is endemic.

This article can be acessed in this LINK

Uncertain future for initiative against FGM in the UK

Lancet. 2016 Jul 23;388(10042):326. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31147-3.

Uncertain future for initiative against FGM in the UK

Devi S

SUMMARY

Activists say that a community-based programme to tackle female genital mutilation in the UK needs support from central or local government to continue. Sharmila Devi reports.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Between Moral Relativism and Moral Hypocrisy: Reframing the Debate on “FGM”

Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2016 Jun;26(2):105-44. doi: 10.1353/ken.2016.0009.

Between Moral Relativism and Moral Hypocrisy: Reframing the Debate on “FGM”

Earp BD

ABSTRACT

The spectrum of practices termed “Female Genital Mutilation” (or FGM) by the World Health Organization is sometimes held up as a counterexample to moral relativism. Those who advance this line of thought suggest the practices are so harmful in terms of their physical and emotional consequences, as well as so problematic in terms of their sexist or oppressive implications, that they provide sufficient, rational grounds for the assertion of a universal moral claim–namely, that all forms of FGM are wrong, regardless of the cultural context. However, others point to cultural bias and moral double standards on the part of those who espouse this argument, and have begun to question the received interpretation of the relevant empirical data on FGM as well. In this article I assess the merits of these competing perspectives. I argue that each of them involves valid moral concerns that should be taken seriously in order to move the discussion forward. In doing so, I draw on the biomedical “enhancement” literature in order to develop a novel ethical framework for evaluating FGM (and related interventions–such as female genital “cosmetic” surgery and nontherapeutic male circumcision) that takes into account the genuine harms that are at stake in these procedures, but which does not suffer from being based on cultural or moral double standards.

This article can be accessed in this LINK