Categories
Archives Blog Original research

Female circumcision in Somalia: anthropological traits

Anthropol Anz. 1985 Dec; 43(4):311-26

Female circumcision in Somalia: anthropological traits

Grassivaro Gallo P, Abdisamed M.

ABSTRACT

In 1981, 2497 subjects (comprising women and girls) were interviewed in Somalia, mostly in Mogadish, about female circumcision. In this study there are presented the principle cultural trends which are connected with the custom and which have arisen from the research. Even today, the practice of female circumcision is universal in Somalia; the percentage of circumcised women was 99.3%. Infibulation is the commonest type of circumcision used (75.7%). The age of circumcision varies from birth to 15; the average being 7.5. The type of circumcision does not seem to be influenced by some environmental variables (e.g. birth place of parents or place of circumcision), it is primarily determined by the population of the individual region. Infibulation is accepted to the greatest extent by the pastoral populations of the middle/northern regions, principally in Ogaden and in the 4 Somalian regions on which it borders: Togdheer, Nugal, Muddug, Galgadud. In the southern regions (Upper, Middle, Lower Giuba) amongst rural populations or populations with a cattle/cultivation economy, there are also attenuated types of circumcision: sunna and clitoridectomia (20 to 30%). The evolution of the practice was studied by data of the subjects, of their mothers and of their daughters. From this analysis there was no indication toward non-circumcision. There is, however, a movement towards the attenuated forms of circumcision. The fundamental key to such an attenuated operation for a child seems to be the presence of the same attenuation in previous generations.

No link exists to check this article online.

Categories
Archives Blog Original research

Women’s sexual health and contraceptive needs after a severe obstetric complication (“near-miss”): a cohort study in Burkina Faso

Reproductive Health 2010, 7:22

Women’s sexual health and contraceptive needs after a severe obstetric complication (“near-miss”): a cohort study in Burkina Faso

Ganaba R, Marshall T, Sombié I, Baggaley RF, Ouédraogo TW, Filippi V.

Corresponding author: Rasmané Ganaba rganaba.muraz@fasonet.bf

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND

Little is known about the reproductive health of women who survive obstetric complications in poor countries. Our aim was to determine how severe obstetric complications in Burkina Faso affect reproductive events in the first year postpartum.

METHODS

Data were collected from a prospective cohort of women who either experienced life threatening (near-miss) pregnancy-related complications or an uncomplicated childbirth, followed from the end of pregnancy to one year postpartum or post-abortum. Documented outcomes include menses resumption, sexual activity resumption, dyspareunia, uptake of contraceptives, unmet needs for contraception and women’s reproductive intentions.

Participants were recruited in seven hospitals between December 2004 and March 2005 in six towns in Burkina Faso.

RESULTS

Reproductive events were associated with pregnancy outcome. The frequency of contraceptive use was low in all groups and the method used varied according to the presence or not of a live baby. The proportion with unmet need for contraception was high and varied according to the time since end of pregnancy. Desire for another pregnancy was highest among near-miss women with perinatal death or natural abortion. Women in the near-miss group with induced abortion, perinatal death and natural abortion had significantly higher odds of subsequent pregnancy. Unintended pregnancies were observed mainly in women in the near-miss group with live birth and the uncomplicated delivery group.

CONCLUSIONS

Considering the potential deleterious impact (on health and socio-economic life) of new pregnancies in near-miss women, it is important to ensure family planning coverage includes those who survive a severe complication.

The open access article can be found in this LINK

Categories
Archives Blog Original research

Health consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting in the Gambia, evidence into action.

Reprod Health. 2011 Oct 3;8:26.

Health consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting in the Gambia, evidence into action.

Kaplan A, Hechavarría S, Martín M, Bonhoure I.

Cátedra de Transferencia del Conocimiento/Parc de Recerca UAB-Santander, Departamento de Antropología Social y Cultural, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. adriana.kaplan@uab.cat

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:

Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) is a harmful traditional practice with severe health complications, deeply rooted in many Sub-Saharan African countries. In The Gambia, the prevalence of FGM/C is 78.3% in women aged between 15 and 49 years. The objective of this study is to perform a first evaluation of the magnitude of the health consequences of FGM/C in The Gambia.

METHODS:

Data were collected on types of FGM/C and health consequences of each type of FGM/C from 871 female patients who consulted for any problem requiring a medical gynaecologic examination and who had undergone FGM/C in The Gambia.

RESULTS:

The prevalence of patients with different types of FGM/C were: type I, 66.2%; type II, 26.3%; and type III, 7.5%. Complications due to FGM/C were found in 299 of the 871 patients (34.3%). Even type I, the form of FGM/C of least anatomical extent, presented complications in 1 of 5 girls and women examined.

CONCLUSION:

This study shows that FGM/C is still practiced in all the six regions of The Gambia, the most common form being type I, followed by type II. All forms of FGM/C, including type I, produce significantly high percentages of complications, especially infections.

This article is open source in LINK

Categories
Archives Blog Original research

Excisions et autres mutilations sexuelles. Entre culture et maltraitance

La Revue du Praticien. 2011 (8): 1044-6

Excisions et autres mutilations sexuelles. Entre culture et maltraitance

Ferradji T

Article in French. Not open access article in LINK

Categories
Archives Blog Original research

Attitudes toward female circumcision among Somali immigrants in Oslo: a qualitative study

Int J Womens Health. 2012;4:7-17. Epub 2012 Jan 20.FREE

Attitudes toward female circumcision among Somali immigrants in Oslo: a qualitative study

Gele AA, Kumar B, Hjelde KH, Sundby J

ABSTRACT
Due to its negative impact on public health, female circumcision (FC) has gained increased attention from international communities and the Norwegian public in recent decades. In 1995, the Norwegian government outlawed the practice and simultaneously developed a package of measures aimed at preventing and ultimately eradicating FC in Norway. Like many other Western countries, immigrants of Somali descent constitute the largest immigrant group in Norway from countries with FC traditions. Although this immigrant group is often perceived as a cultural society that supports FC generally as a practice, there appears to be a lack of studies that explore the impact of acculturation and the Western social context on Somali immigrants’ attitudes toward the practice. Against this background, this paper explores the attitudes of Somalis living in Oslo, Norway to the practice of FC. Findings from this qualitative study indicate that Somalis in Oslo have, to a large extent, changed their attitude toward the practice. This was proven by the presence in Oslo of a large number of Somali parents who left their daughters uncut as well as Somali girls, boys, men, and women who attribute being uncircumcised a high status. This study adds to the knowledge of the process of abandonment of FC among immigrants in the Western countries. The study highlights the success that has been achieved in improving attitudes toward the practice of the Somali community in Oslo, Norway, as well as emerging challenges that need to be addressed further.

This article can be accessed in this LINK