Tag Archives: Adolescent

A person 13 to 18 years of age.

Adolescent and Parental Reactions to Puberty in Nigeria and Kenya: A Cross-Cultural and Intergenerational Comparison.

FREEJ Adolesc Health. 2017 Oct;61(4S):S35-S41. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.03.014.

Adolescent and Parental Reactions to Puberty in Nigeria and Kenya: A Cross-Cultural and Intergenerational Comparison.

Bello BM, Fatusi AO, Adepoju OE, Maina BW, Kabiru CW, Sommer M, Mmari K.


PURPOSE: This qualitative study assesses the cross-cultural and intergenerational reactions of young adolescents and parents to puberty in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, and Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Sixty-six boys and girls (aged 11-13 years) and their parents participated in narrative interviews conducted in English or local languages in two urban poor settings in Ile-Ife and Nairobi. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated, and uploaded into Atlas.ti software for coding and analysis. RESULTS: Reactions of parents and adolescents to puberty were similar across both sites, with few exceptions. Adolescents’ reactions to bodily changes varied from anxiety to pride. Adolescents generally tend to desire greater privacy; trying to hide their developing bodies from others. Most female adolescents emphasized breast development as compared with menstruation as the mark for pubertal initiation, while males emphasized voice changes. Among some ethnic groups in Nairobi, parents and adolescents view male circumcision as the hallmark of adolescence. Parents in both sites reported that with pubertal changes, adolescents tend to become arrogant and engaged in sexual relationships. Parents’ reported responses to puberty include: educating adolescents on bodily changes; counseling on sexual relationships; and, provision of sanitary towels to females. Parents’ responses are generally focused more on daughters. Approaches used by mothers in educating adolescents varied from the provision of factual information to fear/scare tactics. Compared with their own generation, parents perceive that their own children achieve pubertal development earlier, receive more puberty-related education from mothers, and are more exposed to and influenced by media and information technologies. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents’ responses to their pubertal bodily changes include anxiety, shame, and pride. Adolescents desire greater privacy. Parents’ reactions were broadly supportive of their children’s pubertal transition, but mothers’ communication approaches may sometimes be inappropriate in terms of using fear/scare tactics.

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Attitudes to female genital mutilation/cutting among male adolescents in Ilorin, Nigeria

S Afr Med J. 2016 Jul 4;106(8):822-3. doi: 10.7196/SAMJ.2016.v106i8.10124.

Attitudes to female genital mutilation/cutting among male adolescents in Ilorin, Nigeria

Adeniran AS, Ijaiya MA, Fawole AA, Balogun OR, Adesina KT, Olatinwo AW, Olarinoye AO, Adeniran PI


BACKGROUND: The central role of males in female reproductive health issues in patriarchal societies makes them an important group in the eradication of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). OBJECTIVE: To determine knowledge about and attitudes to FGM/C among male adolescents, and their preparedness to protect their future daughters from it. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among male adolescent students in Ilorin, Nigeria. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire after consent had been obtained from them or their parents. Statistical analysis was with SPSS version 20.0 (IBM, USA). A p-value of <0.05 was taken as significant. RESULTS: Of 1 536 male adolescents (mean age 15.09 (standard deviation 1.84) years, range 14 – 19), 1 184 (77.1%) were aware of FGM/C, 514 (33.5%) supported female circumcision, 362 (23.6%) would circumcise their future daughters, 420 (27.3%) were of the opinion that FGM/C had benefits, mostly as a necessity for womanhood (109, 7.1%), and 627 (40.8%) perceived it as wickedness against females; 546 (35.5%) were aware of efforts to eradicate FGM/C, and 42.2% recommended education as the most important intervention to achieve this. CONCLUSION: Education and involvement in advocacy may transform male adolescents into agents for eradication of FGM/C.

Traumatic Vulvar Epithelial Inclusion Cysts Following Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)

Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 2015 Sep;75(9):945-948.FREE

Traumatic Vulvar Epithelial Inclusion Cysts Following Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)

Mack-Detlefsen B, Banaschak S, Boemers TM


Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) occurs mainly in Africa, parts of the Arabian Peninsula and parts of Asia. It is commonly associated with acute complications as well as diverse late/delayed complications. One of the most common of these late complications is progressively enlarging painless cysts of the vulva.

Case Report: An 8-year-old girl from Eritrea presented to our paediatric emergency department with a progressively enlarging mass of the vulva. She had undergone a clitoridectomy and partial removal of the labia minora as an infant in Eritrea. We performed surgical excision of the cyst and reconstruction of the labia. Histology showed a traumatic squamous epithelial inclusion cyst of the vulva.

Conclusion: Epithelial or dermoid cysts of the vulva following FGM are extremely rare. Symptoms often require surgical intervention. Through increasing migration, more girls and female youths with FGM are likely to present to practices and hospitals in Germany. Thus increased knowledge and awareness of the medical complications of FGM and their treatment will be necessary in years to come.

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FGM: a hidden crime.

Community Pract. 2013 Dec;86(12):22-3.

FGM: a hidden crime.

Naughton L.


A new report into female genital mutilation (FGM) highlights that, despite the barbaric practice being illegal in the U.K., not one single person has been held to account for their involvement in the act.

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Perron et al.: Female genital cutting.

J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2013 Nov;35(11):1028-45.

Female genital cutting.

Perron L, Senikas V, Burnett M, Davis V; Social Sexual Issues Committee, Burnett M, Aggarwal A, Bernardin J, Clark V, Davis V, Fisher W, Pellizzari R, Polomeno V, Rutherford M, Sabourin J; Ethics Committee, Shapiro J, Akhtar S, Camire B, Christilaw J, Corey J, Nelson E, Pierce M, Robertson D, Simmonds A.

Ottawa ON.


Objective: To strengthen the national framework for care of adolescents and women affected by female genital cutting (FGC) in Canada by providing health care professionals with: (1) information intended to strengthen their knowledge and understanding of the practice; (2) directions with regard to the legal issues related to the practice; (3) clinical guidelines for the management of obstetric and gynaecological care, including FGC related complications; and (4) guidance on the provision of culturally competent care to adolescents and women with FGC. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in September 2010 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Circumcision, Female) and keywords (e.g., female genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, infibulation). We also searched Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses in 2010 and 2011. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies.

Values: The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Female genital cutting is internationally recognized as a harmful practice and a violation of girls’ and women’s rights to life, physical integrity, and health. (II-3) 2. The immediate and long-term health risks and complications of female genital cutting can be serious and life threatening. (II-3) 3. Female genital cutting continues to be practised in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Sudan. (II-3) 4. Global migration patterns have brought female genital cutting to Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and North America, including Canada. (II-3) 5. Performing or assisting in female genital cutting is a criminal offense in Canada. (III) 6. Reporting to appropriate child welfare protection services is mandatory when a child has recently been subjected to female genital cutting or is at risk of being subjected to the procedure. (III) 7. There is concern that female genital cutting continues to be perpetuated in receiving countries, mainly through the act of re-infibulation. (III) 8. There is a perception that the care of women with female genital cutting is not optimal in receiving countries. (III) 9. Female genital cutting is not considered an indication for Caesarean section. (III)

Recommendations 1. Health care professionals must be careful not to stigmatize women who have undergone female genital cutting. (III-A) 2. Requests for re-infibulation should be declined. (III-B) 3. Health care professionals should strengthen their understanding and knowledge of female genital cutting and develop greater skills for the management of its complications and the provision of culturally competent care to adolescents and women who have undergone genital cutting. (III-A) 4. Health care professionals should use their knowledge and influence to educate and counsel families against having female genital cutting performed on their daughters and other family members. (III-A) 5. Health care professionals should advocate for the availability of and access to appropriate support and counselling services. (III-A) 6. Health care professionals should lend their voices to community-based initiatives seeking to promote the elimination of female genital cutting. (III-A) 7. Health care professionals should use interactions with patients as opportunities to educate women and their families about female genital cutting and other aspects of women’s health and reproductive rights. (III-A) 8. Research into female genital cutting should be undertaken to explore women’s perceptions and experiences of accessing sexual and reproductive health care in Canada. (III-A) The perspectives, knowledge, and clinical practice of health care professionals with respect to female genital cutting should also be studied. (III-A). 9. Information and guidance on female genital cutting should be integrated into the curricula for nursing students, medical students, residents, midwifery students, and students of other health care professions. (III-A) 10. Key practices in providing optimal care to women with female genital cutting include: a. determining how the woman refers to the practice of female genital cutting and using this terminology throughout care; (III-C) b. determining the female genital cutting status of the woman and clearly documenting this information in her medical file; (III-C) c. ensuring the availability of a well-trained, trusted, and neutral interpreter who can ensure confidentiality and who will not exert undue influence on the patient-physician interaction when providing care to a woman who faces language challenges; (III-C) d. ensuring the proper documentation of the woman’s medical history in her file to minimize the need for repeated medical histories and/or examinations and to facilitate the sharing of information; (III-C) e. providing the woman with appropriate and well-timed information, including information about her reproductive system and her sexual and reproductive health; (III-C) f. ensuring the woman’s privacy and confidentiality by limiting attendants in the room to those who are part of the health care team; (III-C) g. providing woman-centred care focused on ensuring that the woman’s views and wishes are solicited and respected, including a discussion of why some requests cannot be granted for legal or ethical reasons; (III-C) h. helping the woman to understand and navigate the health system, including access to preventative care practices; (III-C) i. using prenatal visits to prepare the woman and her family for delivery; (III-C) j. when referring, ensuring that the services and/or practitioners who will be receiving the referral can provide culturally competent and sensitive care, paying special attention to concerns related to confidentiality and privacy. (III-C).

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Female genital mutilation and visual checks on schoolgirls.

Nurs Stand. 2013 Oct 2;28(5):34. doi: 10.7748/ns2013.

Female genital mutilation and visual checks on schoolgirls.

Hopkins C.


I am disappointed in the sweeping statements made by Bridget Ryan (Letters September 11) and her views about how to deal with and prevent female genital mutilation (FGM).

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Labia minora elongation as understood by Baganda male and female adolescents in Uganda.

Cult Health Sex. 2013 Aug 1. [Epub ahead of print]LME

Labia minora elongation as understood by Baganda male and female adolescents in Uganda.

Martínez Pérez G, Namulondo H, Tomás Aznar C


Labia minora elongation is a common traditional female genital modification practice among the members of the Baganda ethnic group in Uganda. In 2002, a study carried out by the Padua Working Group on Female Genital Mutilation analysed how Baganda girls residing in Wakiso District graphically represented their experiences of labia minora elongation. In the present study, using the same methodology and in the same geographic setting 10 years later, we asked young men and women to prepare graphical representations of this rite. The purpose was to learn about how the practice is perceived and represented, describing the differences found in their testimonies, and comparing the findings with the former study. A total of 36 respondents (21 male and 15 female), aged between 9 and 15 years old participated in the study. The drawings were analysed using a three-themes analysis frame with a focus on setting, subject and operator. Differences were detected between how young women and men represented this practice. Educational interventions may be helpful to address the doubts, concerns, anxieties and misconceptions that Baganda youth may have concerning traditional genital practices.

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Prevalence of and factors affecting female genital mutilation among schoolgirls in Eastern Sudan.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013 Mar;120(3):288-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2012.09.018. Epub 2012 Dec 7.

Prevalence of and factors affecting female genital mutilation among schoolgirls in Eastern Sudan.

Ali AA, Okud A, Mohammed AA, Abdelhadi MA.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Kassala University, Kassala, Sudan. abuzianab73@yahoo.com

There is no ABSTRACT available for this article

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First UK prosecution for female genital mutilation moves a step closer.

BMJ. 2013 May 8;346:f2981. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f2981. FREE

First UK prosecution for female genital mutilation moves a step closer.

Torjesen I.


The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) is examining five cases of alleged female genital mutilation as part of its effort to try to finally bring the first successful prosecution for the offence in the United Kingdom.

Female genital mutilation has been a criminal offence in the UK for almost 30 years under the Prohibition of Female Circumcision Act 1985. The law was made tougher in 2003 when the Female Genital Mutilation Act made it an offence for UK citizens to take a child abroad for the procedure.

Each year more than 20 000 girls under the age of 15 years living in the UK are believed to be subjected to female genital mutilation or “cutting,” and 66 000 women are living with the consequences.1 However, no one has ever been successfully prosecuted under either act, and no case has even been brought to court…

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Adolescent sexual and reproductive health in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria–issues and challenges.

Afr J Reprod Health. 2007 Apr;11(1):113-24. FREE

Adolescent sexual and reproductive health in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria–issues and challenges.

Okonta PI.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State. Patrickokonta@Yahoo.com


There has been an increasing awareness of the need to pay special focus on the adolescent and their sexual and reproductive h
ealth. This article reviews the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in the Niger Delta region (NDR) of Nigeria. The objective is to bring to focus these important issues in the region. Adolescents in the NDR engage in unhealthy sexual behaviour characterized by early age at sexual initiation, unsafe sex and multiple sexual partners. The local socioeconomic condition exerts extra pressure on the adolescent with negative reproductive health consequences. There is urgent need to develop a time bound strategic framework and plan to redress this situation. This will require the participation of all stake holders.

This article can be accessed in this LINK.