BMJ. 2013 Jul 25;347:f4754. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f4754.
Fewer younger women are undergoing female genital mutilation, study finds.
The practice of female genital mutilation is becoming less widespread in countries with low prevalence of the practice, prompting the children’s charity Unicef to say there are strong signs it will become a “vestige of the past.”
A statistical report on the 29 countries in Africa and the Middle East where the practice is most prevalent shows that in some countries the practice is declining rapidly.1 Researchers used 70 household surveys conducted over a 20 year period, as well as carrying out new surveys, to look at the changing landscape surrounding female genital mutilation.
Researchers asked women and girls aged 15 to 19 years whether they had undergone the procedure, which in most cases takes place before the age of 10. They asked the same question …
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Afr J Reprod Health. 2006 Aug;10(2):48-56.
Trends in female circumcision between 1933 and 2003 in Osun and Ogun States, Nigeria (a cohort analysis).
Adeokun LA, Oduwole M, Oronsaye F, Gbogboade AO, Aliyu N, Wumi A, Sadiq G, Sutton I, Taiwo M.
Association for Reproductive and Family Health, Ibadan, Oyo State. email@example.com
The international movement against female circumcision gained momentum in the past two decades. Although recent studies report decline in the practice none has studied the cohort effect or provided plausible explanation for such decline. Changes in female circumcision occurring in two southwestern States of Nigeria between 1933 and 2003 were tracked in a cross-sectional survey using cohort analysis. 1174 female live births to 413 women were included in the analysis. About fifty-three percent of all females were circumcised. The prevalence dropped from 64.9% during the period 1933-60 to 25.7% for the period 2000-2003. For first order births, the corresponding rates were 58.8% and 25.0%. The decline for first-born females comes a decade before other birth orders. Age and education of mother are two main factors of the decline. Global consensus or legal enforcement plays secondary roles. Understanding how modernisation affects the decline in female circumcision should receive greater attention.
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Biodemography Soc Biol. 2008 Fall;54(2):141-51.
Female genital cutting and mother’s age at birth are associated with the sex of offspring in Africa.
Martina JF, Williams RC.
School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-2402, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Female genital cutting (FGC) is widespread in Africa. Its short and long term medical consequences are widely reported. Here we report that FGC is associated with and may contribute to increases in the sex ratio at birth (Odds Ratio = 1.019; 95% C.I. = 1.007, 1.032) while mother’s age at birth is inversely associated with probability of male birth (Odds Ratio = 0.998; 95% C.I. = 0.997, 0.999) in a generalized linear, logistic model with the probability of a male birth the dependent variable and eight potential explanatory variables applied to 413,384 births in 22 African countries. While these two associations are statistically significant, their odds ratios are close to 1.0 and they only slightly decrease the null deviance of the model. Therefore sex determination in these data is still a mostly stochastic process determined by the random variation in X or Y sperm production, transport, and conception.
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Arch Sex Behav. 2009 Apr;38(2):178-85. Epub 2007 Oct 18.
The effects of female genital mutilation on the onset of sexual activity and marriage in Guinea.
Van Rossem R, Gage AJ. Vakgroep Sociologie, Universiteit Gent, Korte Meer 3-5, 9000, Ghent, Belgium. email@example.com
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is almost universal in Guinea and practiced by all ethnic and religious groups and social classes, although the prevalence of the various types of FGM varies by socioeconomic group. A common explanation for FGM practices is that they contribute to the social control over female sexuality and enhance the marriageability of women. These claims were tested using the 1999 Guinea Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) (N = 6753). Event history techniques were used to examine the effect of type of FGM on the age at first sex and the age at first marriage and logistic regression for the effect of FGM on premarital sex. The results showed that the type of FGM had a significant zero-order effect on the age at first marriage and the prevalence of premarital sex, but not on the age at first sex. However, these effects became non-significant once controls for age, religion, ethnicity, education, residence, and wealth were added to the model. Variations in sexual behavior, therefore, were unrelated to type of FGM, but reflected differences in the social characteristics of the participants.
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Afr J Reprod Health. 2002 Dec;6(3):44-52.
Male and female viewpoints on female circumcision in Ekpeye, Rivers State, Nigeria.
Department of Human Kinetics, Health and Safety Education, Rivers State College of Education, Port Harcourt.
One hundred and ninety five male and female volunteers across the social strata were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using frequency tables. The study revealed that 74.7% of female respondents were circumcised. They believe that the practice would help prevent sexual promiscuity, curb sexual desires and that it is a custom they cannot do without. Most of the men would not marry an uncircumcised female, while a substantial number of the respondents would like to circumcise their daughters. Community effort to eradicate the practice is very minimal. Based on the findings, it is suggested that communities where female genital mutilation (FGM) is practiced as a social norm should be involved in eradication campaigns with support from national and international organisations.
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