Tag Archives: Body Modification/Non-Therapeutic

The wounding of the body or body parts by branding, cutting, piercing (BODY PIERCING), or TATTOOING as a cultural practice or expression of creativity or identity.

Punishment of Minor Female Genital Ritual Procedures: Is the Perfect the Enemy of the Good?

Dev World Bioeth. 2017;17(2):134–140.

Punishment of Minor Female Genital Ritual Procedures: Is the Perfect the Enemy of the Good?

Jacobs AJ, Arora KS

ABSTRACT

Female genital alteration (FGA) is any cutting, removal or destruction of any part of the external female genitalia. Various FGA practices are common throughout the world. While most frequent in Africa and Asia, transglobal migration has brought ritual FGA to Western nations. All forms of FGA are generally considered undesirable for medical and ethical reasons when performed on minors. One ritual FGA procedure is the vulvar nick (VN). This is a small laceration to the vulva that does not cause morphological changes. Besides being performed as a primary ritual procedure it has been proposed as a substitute for more extensive forms of FGA. Measures advocated or taken to reduce the burden of FGA can be punitive or non-punitive. Even if it is unethical to perform VN, we argue that it also is unethical to attempt to suppress it through punishment. First, punishment of VN is likely to cause more harm than good overall, even to those ostensibly being protected. Second, punishment is likely to exceed legitimate retributive ends. We do not argue in favor of performing VN. Rather, we argue that non-punitive strategies such as education and harm reduction should be employed.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

The Practice of Puxa-Puxa among Mozambican Women: A Systematic Inventory of Motives.

J Sex Res. 2013 Aug 7. [Epub ahead of print] LME

The Practice of Puxa-Puxa among Mozambican Women: A Systematic Inventory of Motives.

Vera Cruz G, Mullet E.

Department of Psychology, Eduardo Mondlane University.

ABSTRACT

Puxa-puxa is the elongation of the labia minora of the genital organs. It is one of the most widespread genital practices among women in Mozambique, and the practice seems to be specific to this country. The motives underlying this practice and its abandonment were examined in a theory-driven way. A total of 616 women currently living in the provinces of Maputo, Zambezia, and Nampula, aged 18 to 62, were presented with one of two questionnaires that contained items about possible motives for practicing puxa-puxa or possible motives for not practicing it. Seven separable motives for practicing puxa-puxa were found, and the most highly rated were “Having a satisfying sexual life”; “Satisfying my sexual partner”; and “Gaining self-control.” Five separable motives for not practicing puxa-puxa were found, and the most highly rated were “Disliking a painful practice”; “Affirming one’s value as a person”; and “Avoiding contamination.” The main findings of the study are that the practice of puxa-puxa is associated with deep psychological motives common to most women in most cultures, namely having a satisfying sexual life with a reliable partner, creating the conditions for having children, and being able to care for them. The abandonment of this practice is largely the result of personal decisions, which are not taken under constraint and which are not exclusively taken from fear of illness.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Labia Minora Elongation and its implications on the health of women: A Systematic Review

Int J Sex Health. 2013. DOI:10.1080/19317611.2013.851139LME

Labia Minora Elongation and its implications on the health of women: A Systematic Review

Martínez Pérez G, Tomás Aznar C, Bagnol B

ABSTRACT

Labia Minora Elongation is a female genital modification practice categorized among the types included in the fourth group of female genital mutilation. In this paper we display the results of a systematic review of the evidence-based knowledge published on the health risks and benefits of Labia Minora Elongation as informed by African female respondents who are insiders of the practice. No other systematic review on this specific topic has been published before. A methodological bibliographic search was done in scientific databases, by manual referencing and by contacting experts on this area of knowledge. Seventeen papers turned out eligible for this review, which correspond to nine different studies. Eight of these studies were conducted in Eastern and Southern African countries and one was carried out in Italy. This review concludes that pain at the beginning of the practice, nuisances related to the use of caustic herbs, and stigmatization in failing to comply with the practice are the principal health risks associated to labia minora elongation. At the same time, there is evidence that labial elongation may benefit the sexual health and well being of women. More research of a quantitative nature is necessary to determine its prevalence across the practicing cultures and to precise its implications on the sexual and reproductive health for the women who engage in this female genital modification.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Elongation of labia minora – Zambia

manena20.blogspot.com webpage. Sunday, December 07, 2008LME

Elongation of labia minora – Zambia

By Manena (author of the blog where this post is hosted)

EXTRACT

I was browsing the web today and just now found out that elongation of labia minora is classified as Genital Mutilation type IV (where have I been?). So of course after my initial shock of “oh my God! I am mutilated!!!” abated… I had a few minutes to think and I have come to a conclusion on the subject. The researchers have erred.

History and Commentary: Let me start by saying that the information contained herein will most likely upset/disconcert a lot of Zambians because we have trouble talking about our sexuality or sex in public places. Ritual/ traditional sexual matters are discussed in private among friends or at gender restricted traditional ceremonies. The reason I feel strongly to speak on this subject is that as Zambian, we sometimes have a tendency to accept western standards as the norm, shunning our own cultures without much investigation other than the fact that it seems primitive. We often forget that when anthropologists come in from other countries to “study” us, they are not highly familiar with the language for a start, and the local people are not comfortable explaining everything or have trouble translating things to English. The evidence is clear in ChisunguA girl’s initiation ceremony among the Bemba of Zambiaby Audrey Richards. Yes there are a lot of inconsistencies and traditional teaching that has been done the same way for ages that we have no idea why it’s done that way other than– it was passed on by our forefathers that way. You could say the same for many religious practices too. Unfortunately, unlike religion, our history is not written, but passes on through fables or partially true stories, through dance and song or a village elders romantic view of the past…

This post can be accessed in this LINK

ELONGATION: OKUKYALIRA ENSIKO, the Buganda way of enhancing sexual pleasure

Ekimeeza webpage. MAY 21, 2012 LME

ELONGATION: OKUKYALIRA ENSIKO, the Buganda way of enhancing sexual pleasure

(No author)

EXTRACT

Humanity’s pursuit for merit is not restricted to the open. Even in utmost privacy, when the matter at hand is entirely the business of a secretive twosome, mankind has always sought to excel and impress.

To many men, performance must impress even if it means applying drugs as dangerous as Viagra, Levitra and Cialis. Many others have tried hazardous penis enlargement products. It is women, however, that have come up with the most creative and most awesome ways of enhancing their sexual performance.

In some cultures, glitters and jewels are applied down there to boost the area’s attractiveness. In parts of East and Central Africa women invented a sexual stimulus method that the people of Buganda came to know as Okukyalira ensiko.

This tradition of pulling and elongating the parts of the vagina variously known as labia minora, inner labia or inner lips enjoys pervasive reverence in central Uganda. In western Uganda, women of the Bahima clan used to make their labia minora long enough to cover the vaginal opening, raising barricades in the path of rapists. As members of the clan moved to towns and increasingly started wearing clothes following the 1986 change of government, the fear of rape went away with the modification of the vagina…

This article can be accessed in this LINK

[Nurses’ roles in female sexual mutilation]

Soins Pediatr Pueric. 2008 Dec;(245):39-41.

[Nurses’ roles in female sexual mutilation]. [Article in French]

Gignon M, Manaouil C, Decourcelle M, Jarde O.

Service de médecine légale et sociale, CHU d’Amiens-Picardie, Amiens.

There is no ABSTRACT available for this article.

There is no LINK to view this article online.

[Female cosmetic genital surgery: Point-counterpoint]

Gynecol Obstet FertiL. July-Aug 2012 40(7–8); 445–448

Que penser de la génitoplastie cosmétique féminine aujourd’hui ?

[Female cosmetic genital surgery: Point-counterpoint] [Article in French]

Colson M.H.

Abstract

Cosmetic genitoplasty interventions, and especially reduction nymphoplasties, now seem to attract more and more patients, mainly among the younger who are more influenced by widely publicized pornographic than by anatomic reality they hardly suspect. However, they must be informed and warned against the trivialization of a still young surgery, insufficiently justified validated and supervised, especially on the psychological level, and with many unresolved ethical issues.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

African Sexuality: A reader

Pambazuka Press has published the book “African Sexualities: A Reader”, a collection of research and opinion papers edited by the Ugandese writer Sylvia Tamale.

In this book the following works can be found:

1. Introduction, by Sylvia Tamale

2. Researching and Theorizing Sexualities in Africa, by Sylvia Tamale

3. Doing Research on Sexuality in Africa: Ethical Dilemmas and the Positioning of the Researcher, by Emídio Gune and Sandra Manuel

4. From Minuscule Biomedical Models to Sexuality’s Depths, by Stella Nyanzi

5. Tracks: Researching Sexualities Walking AbOUT the city of Johannesburg, by Zethu Matebeni

6. Dialoguing Culture and Sex: Reflections from the Field, by Amy S Tsanga

7. Subversion & Resistance: Activist Initiatives, by Jane Bennett

8. The ‘Perils’ of Sex and the Panics of Race: The Dangers of Inter-Racial Sex in Colonial Southern Rhodesia, by Oliver Phillips

9. Nudity and Morality: Legislating Women’s Bodies and Dress in Nigeria, by Bibi Bakare-Yusuf

10. “Getting the Nation Talking about Sex”: Reflections on the Politics of Sexuality and ‘Nation-Building’ in Post-Apartheid South Africa, by Deborah Posel

11. Paradoxes of sex work and sexuality in modern- day Uganda, by  Sylvia Tamale

12. Life Story: Love, Power and Resilience, by Daughtie Akoth

13. African LGBTI Declaration, by 14. Poem: Two Kinds of Blue, by Connie Mutua

15. Life Story & Poem: A Night in Zanzibar, by Jessica Horn

16. Poem: False Memory, by Jumoke Verissimo

17. Dear Diary, by Lindiwe Nkutha

18. Poem: Explain, by Hakima Abbas

19. Poem: My Love (for Eudy Simelane), by Musa Okwonga

20. Representing African Sexualities
m by Desiree Lewis

21. Pious Stardom: Cinema and the Islamic Revival in Egypt, by Karim Mahmoud Tartoussieh

22. Intersex: The Forgotten Constituency, by Julius Kaggwa

23. The Chronicle of an Intersexed Activist’s Journey , by Sally Gross

24. Gender Dynamics: A Transsexual Overview, by Audrey Mbugua

25. Barrenness and Sexuality in the Ndau Community, by Rebecca Magorokosho

26. “Osunality” (Or African Eroticism), by Nkiru Nzegwu

27. Politics of naming sexual practices, by Brigitte Bagnol & Esmeralda Mariano LME

28. Fiction: My American Jon, by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

29. Life Story: Questions, Questions, by Lucy Nambajjwe

30. Fiction: Penitence—Hurry Hurry No Speed, by Derrick Zgambo

31. Fiction: Love Beads, by Yaba Badoe

32. Poem: Cinnamon, by Gabeba Baderoon

33. Poem: Covert Sexuality, by Coumba Toure

34. Poem: The Dream in the Next Body, by Gabeba Baderoon

35. Poem: Nature’s Dance, by Olivia Coatzee

36. Poem: Untitled, by Juliane Okot Bitek

37. Reproductive Health and Sexual Rights, by Beth Maina-Ahlberg and Asli Kulane

38. Family Planning, Contraception and Abortion in Islam, by Sa’diyya Shaikh

39. Guilty Until Proven Innocent: Politics versus the Press in Defense of Reproductive Rights in Zambia, by Wilma Nchito

40. Abortion: a Desperate Measure for Lack of Choice, by Salma Maoulidi

41. Poem: The Shedding of Blood, by Unoma Azuah

42. Ode to my Uterus, by Everjoice J. Win

43. Life Stories: Ob/Gyn Experiences, by Sylvia Tamale

44. Journal Excerpts: Reflections on my Journey with my Womb, by Akabotho Kaluwa

45. Masculinities and Male Sexualities, by Kopano Ratele

46. Multiple Meanings of Manhood Among Boys in Ghana, by Akosua Adomako Ampofo and John Boaten

47. “Mombasa Morans”: Embodiment, Sexual Morality and Samburu Men in Kenya, by George Paul Meiu

48. Sexual Orientation and Human Rights: Putting Homophobia on Trial, by Makau Mutua

49. ‘I am Not Tassa, He is Not a Man Like Other Men’: Feminizing Infertility and Masculinizing Fertility in South Nyanza, 1945-60, by Agnes Odinga

50. Poem: The Phantoms of My Opera, by Lombe Annie Mwambwa

51. Poem: The Kiss, by Frank Chipasula

52. Life Story: The Diamond in The G…., by Kipkemboi [jeffrey moses]

53. Unpacking the [Govern]Mentality of African Sexualities, by Stella Nyanzi

54. Sexuality, Gender and Disability in South Africa, by Washeila Sait, Theresa Lorenzo, Melissa Steyn and Mikki van Zyl

55. The Realities of ‘Choice’ in Africa: Implications for Sexuality, Vulnerability, and HIV/AIDS, by Chi-Chi Undie

56. Poem: Wet Towel, by Lombe Mwambwa

57. Interview: Challenges of Sexuality and Aging in a Barren Woman, by Edith Okiria

58. Poem: AIDS Sting(ma)

59. Sexuality, Spirituality & the Supernatural, by Chimaraoke Izugbara

60. ‘African sex is dangerous!’ renegotiating ‘ritual sex’ in Contemporary Masaka District, Uganda, by Stella Nyanzi, Justine Nassimbwa, Vincent Kayizzi and Strivan Kabanda

61. Sangomahood, Abstinence and Celibacy Among Tangoma in Swaziland, by Hebron Ndlovu

62. Creative Methodological/Pedagogical Approaches, by Mansah Prah

63. Interrogating the Link between Gendered Sexualities, Power and Legal Mechanisms: Experiences from the Lecture Room, by Sylvia Tamale

64. Through Zanele Muholi’s Eyes: Re/imagining Ways of Seeing Black Lesbians, by Pumla Gqola

65. A Radical Technique to Teach Sexual Rights, by Dorothy Aken’ova

66. Song: Laabaan Song, by Marame Gueye

In this LINK you can purchase the digital edition of this book.

[History of arteficial deformation of the human body. V. Selfmutilation, ritual mutilation].

Orv Hetil. 2011 Sep 18;152(38):1544-6.

[History of arteficial deformation of the human body. V. Selfmutilation, ritual mutilation].

[Article in Hungarian]

Józsa L.

jozsalg@freemail.hu

No abstract is available.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Genitals and ethnicity: the politics of genital modifications

Reprod Health Matters. May 2010, 18(35):29-37.

Genitals and ethnicity: the politics of genital modifications

Johnsdotter S, Essen B

ABSTRACT

The discrepancy in societal attitudes toward female genital cosmetic surgery for European women and female genital cutting in primarily African girl children and women raises the following fundamental question. How can it be that extensive genitalmodifications, including reduction of labial and clitoral tissue, are considered acceptable and perfectly legal in many European countries, while those same societies have legislation making female genital cutting illegal, and the World Health Organization bans even the “pricking” of the female genitals? At present, tensions are obvious as regards the modification offemale genitalia, and current legislation and medical practice show inconsistencies in relation to women of different ethnic backgrounds. As regards the right to health, it is questionable both whether genital cosmetic surgery is always free of complications and whether female genital cutting always leads to them. Activists, national policymakers and other stakeholders, including cosmetic genital surgeons, need to be aware of these inconsistencies and find ways to resolve them and adopt non-discriminatory policies. This is not necessarily an issue of either permitting or banning all forms of genitalcutting, but about identifying a consistent and coherent stance in which key social values – including protection of children, bodily integrity, bodily autonomy, and equality before the law – are upheld.

This article can be purchased in this LINK