Tag Archives: Ceremonial behavior

A series of actions, sometimes symbolic actions which may be associated with a behavior pattern, and are often indispensable to its performance.

[“Female circumcision” reflected in Islamic religious rights]

Praxis (Bern 1994). 2007 Sep 26;96(39):1497-500.

[“Female circumcision” reflected in Islamic religious rights]. [Article in German]

Leven KH. Institut für Ethik und Geschichte der Medizin der Universität Freiburg i.Br. leven@egm.uni-freiburg.de

There is no abstract available for this article.

There is no LINK to view this article online.

Women’s attitudes towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation in Egypt.

J Inj Violence Res. 2010 Jan;2(1):41-5. doi: 10.5249/jivr.v2i1.33.FREE

Women’s attitudes towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation in Egypt.

Dalal K, Lawoko S, Jansson B.

Linköpings Universitet, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Centre for Medical Technology Assessment and Division of Social Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Linköping, Sweden. koustuv.dalal@liu.se

BACKGROUND: To examine women’s attitude towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation (FGM) in association with their access to information, knowledge of health effects and cultural beliefs concerning FGM in Egypt.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 9159 women, using data from the household survey in Egypt by Demographic and Health survey 2003. A comprehensive questionnaire covering attitudes towards FGM, demographics, and access to information was used. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were applied to investigate how demographics, level of education, access to information, knowledge of health consequences and cultural beliefs influence women’s attitudes towards FGM.

RESULTS: Among the demographic variables, discontinuation of FGM was independently associated with urban residency and post-secondary education. Moreover, women who were informed by the media, and those who had attended community meetings, church, or mosque where FGM was discussed, as well as women who were aware of the negative health consequences of FGM, were more likely to support discontinuation of FGM. By contrast, women with positive cultural conceptions of FGM were less likely to favor its discontinuation.

CONCLUSIONS: Public education and information dissemination aiming to change current cultural notions favoring FGM practice – through community and religious leaders, and radio and television programs – may play an important role in modifying women’s attitudes towards FGM. These findings have some implications for intervention and policy. ‎

This article can be accessed for free in this LINK

Women’s Sexuality as a Site of Control & Resistance: Views on the African Context

Keynote Address delivered at the International Conference on Bride price under the theme, “Coalition and Action to Safeguard Women and Children in the Family, “under the auspices of the Mifumi Project, February 17, 2004 at Makerere University, KampalaFREELME

Women’s Sexuality as a Site of Control & Resistance: Views on the African Context 

Tamale S

Faculty of Law – Makerere University

EXTRACT

…Tutelage begun at puberty just before a girl starts menstruating, when she would “visit the bush” under the tutelage of her Ssenga.,24 Visiting the bush involves a procedure of stretching or elongating the labia minor of a woman. Traditionally, among the Baganda, the meaning attached to this cultural practice was a tightly kept secret that was associated with female enhanced arousal in foreplay. The purported and commonly touted meaning of the elongated labia was that they enhanced erotic pleasure of a man who came in sexual contact with them. Of course this practice was viewed through a completely different light by the imperialists who came across it. They perceived it as a barbaric mutilation of the female genitals and, today it has been condemned and classified as “Type IV FGM”!…

This conference paper can be accessed in this LINK

“A CASE OF CULTURE GONE AWRY”

Masters in Women’s Law Programme, Southern and Eastern Africa Regional Women’s Law Centre, Faculty of Law, University of Zimbabwe. (2008)LMEFREE

“A case of culture gone awry”: An investigation of female initiation ceremonies and Nyau dance vigils on the rights of teenage girls to education and sexual reproductive health amongst migrant communities in Norton, Zimbabwe

Thabethe SN

ABSTRACT

This dissertation focuses on the harm suffered by teenage girls who, often forced into early marriages by poverty, must first engage in the customary practices of initiation ceremonies followed by participation in highly ritualized dance vigils. Evidence from a wide range of sources analysed in the context of various methodologies, in particular the Women’s Law Approach, testifies loudly to the serious harm caused, primarily, to their health and education as a result of the growing abuses of these practices. In order to protect and realize the human rights of these vulnerable young women in terms of local and international HR instruments which bind Zimbabwe, the writer does not suggest abolishing the practices, but rather reforming them internally by educating their adult overseers.

This Master Thesis Dissertation can be accessed in this LINK

Virginity testing in South Africa: re-traditioning the postcolony.

Cult Health Sex. 2006 Jan-Feb;8(1):17-30.

Virginity testing in South Africa: re-traditioning the postcolony.

Vincent L.

Department of Political and International Studies, Rhodes University, South Africa. L.Vincent@ru.ac.za

ABSTRACT

Umhlanga is a ceremony celebrating virginity. In South Africa, it is practiced, among others, by the Zulu ethnic group who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu Natal. After falling into relative disuse in the Zulu community, the practice of virginity testing made a comeback some 10 years ago at around the time of the country’s first democratic election and coinciding with the period when the HIV pandemic began to take hold. In July 2005 the South African Parliament passed a new Children’s Bill which will prohibit virginity testing of children. The Bill has been met with outrage and public protest on the part of Zulu citizens. Traditional circumcision rites are also addressed in the new bill but are not banned. Instead, male children are given the right to refuse to participate in traditional initiation ceremonies which include circumcision. This paper asks why the practice of virginity testing is regarded as so troubling to the new democratic order that the state has chosen to take the heavy-handed route of banning it. The paper further asks why the state’s approach to traditional male circumcision has been so different to its approach to virginity testing. Finally, the paper asks what these two challenging cases in the country’s new democracy tell us about the nature of liberal democratic citizenship in South Africa 10 years after apartheid’s formal demise.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Ritual genital cutting of female minors.

Pediatrics. 2010 Jul;126(1):191. Epub 2010 Jun 7.

Ritual genital cutting of female minors.

American Academy of Pediatrics Board of Directors.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) reaffirms its strong opposition to female genital cutting (FGC) and counsels its members not to perform such procedures. As typically practiced, FGC can be life-threatening. Little girls who escape death are still vulnerable to sterility, infection, and psychological trauma.

The AAP does not endorse the practice of offering a “clitoral nick.” This minimal pinprick is forbidden under federal law and the AAP does not recommend it to its members.

The AAP is steadfast in its goal of protecting all young girls from the harms of FGC….

This article can be accessed for free in this LINK

Female genital mutilation: cultural practice or human rights violation?

Ala Nurse. 2011 Mar-May;38(1):1, 8.

Female genital mutilation: cultural practice or human rights violation?

Guzman AL.

St. Luke’s Boise C.A.R.E.S. Program/North West Nazarene University, Emmett, Idaho
83617, USA. guzmana@slhs.org

No link to view this article online.

Ritualistic female genital mutilation: current status and future outlook.

Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1997 Oct;52(10):643-51.

Ritualistic female genital mutilation: current status and future outlook.

Elchalal U, Ben-Ami B, Gillis R, Brzezinski A.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.

ABSTRACT

Ritualistic sexual mutilation of females dates back to the fifth century B.C. This traditional practice is a social as well as a health issue that affects the physical and mental well being of the women who undergo it. Although practiced mostly in African countries north of the equator and the Middle-East, concern has recently been expressed that female genital mutilation is also being practiced in the U.S., Europe, and other western countries by immigrants from these countries. This review describes the various types of female genital mutilation and presents the historical and cultural background of the tradition, outlines the medical, psychological and sexual problems, and discusses the current status and future outlook for this tradition, emphasizing social, medical, and legislative aspects. PIP: Ritualistic sexual mutilation of females dates back to the 5th century B.C. This traditional practice is a social as well as a health issue that affects the physical and mental well being of the women who undergo it. Although practiced mostly in African countries north of the equator and the Middle East, concern has recently been expressed that female genital mutilation is also being practiced in the US, Europe, and other western countries by immigrants from these countries. This review describes the various types of female genital mutilation and presents the historical and cultural background of the tradition; outlines the associated medical, psychological, and sexual problems; and discusses the current status and future outlook for this tradition, emphasizing social, medical, and legislative aspects.author’s modified.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

The social vagina: labia elongation and social capital among women in Rwanda.

Cult Health Sex. 2010 Oct;12(7):813-26.LME

The social vagina: labia elongation and social capital among women in Rwanda.

Larsen J

Department of Social Policy, London School of Economics and Political Sciences, London, UK. j.kuehnellarsen@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Far from being an individual concern, vaginas are located within complex socio-cultural settings. The acceptability of policies that focus on health-promoting behavioural change is influenced by values regarding normative gender and sexual roles. In Rwanda, the elongation of the labia minorathrough manual manipulation is not an individual act but takes place in social groups and thus cannot be fully understood by focusing one’s attention solely on the individual-related behavioural components but, rather, on the social environment in which it exists. This paper aims to increase knowledge about labia elongation and assesses whether this vaginal practice produce social capital.

This article can be purchased in this LINK