Tag Archives: Community-Based Participatory Research

Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.

Female Genital Mutilation in Kenya: are young men allies in social change programmes?

Reprod Health Matters. 2016 May;24(47):118-25. doi: 10.1016/j.rhm.2016.06.002.

Female Genital Mutilation in Kenya: are young men allies in social change programmes?

Brown E, Mwangi-Powell F, Jerotich M, le May V


The Girl Summit held in 2014 aimed to mobilise greater effort to end Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) within a generation, building on a global movement which viewed the practice as a severe form of violence against women and girls and a violation of their rights. The UN, among others, endorse “comprehensive” strategies to end FGM, including legalistic measures, social protection and social communications. FGM is a sensitive issue and difficult to research, and rapid ethnographic methods can use existing relations of trust within social networks to explore attitudes towards predominant social norms which posit FGM as a social necessity. This study used Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation Research (PEER) to understand young men’s (18-25 years) perceptions of FGM, demand for FGM among future spouses, and perceptions of efforts to end FGM in a small town in West Pokot, Kenya, where FGM is reported to be high (between 85% to 96%). Twelve PEER researchers were recruited, who conducted two interviews with their friends, generating a total of 72 narrative interviews. The majority of young men who viewed themselves as having a “modern” outlook and with aspirations to marry “educated” women were more likely not to support FGM. Our findings show that young men viewed themselves as valuable allies in ending FGM, but that voicing their opposition to the practice was often difficult. More efforts are needed by multi-stakeholders – campaigners, government and local leaders – to create an enabling environment to voice that opposition.

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Effectiveness of Interventions Designed to Prevent Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Systematic Review

Stud Fam Plann. 2012 June 43(2): 135-146

Effectiveness of Interventions Designed to Prevent Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Systematic Review

Berg RC, Denison E


Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is widely considered a human rights infringement, although communities that practice the tradition view it as an integral part of their culture. Given these vastly different views, the effectiveness of efforts to abandon FGM/C is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review of the best available evidence regarding evaluations of interventions to prevent FGM/C, including eight controlled before-and-after studies with 7,042 participants from Africa. Findings indicate that 19 of 49 outcomes (with baseline similarity) were significantly different at study level, mostly favoring the intervention, but results from four meta-analyses showed considerable heterogeneity. The limited effectiveness and weak overall quality of the evidence from the studies appear related to methodological limitations of the studies and shortcomings in the implementation of the interventions. Nevertheless, the findings point to possible advantageous developments from the interventions.

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Building community-based participatory research partnerships with a Somali refugee community.

Am J Prev Med. 2009 Dec;37(6 Suppl 1):S230-6.

Building community-based participatory research partnerships with a Somali refugee community.

Johnson CE, Ali SA, Shipp MP.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maricopa Integrated Health System, Southwest Interdisciplinary Research Center, Arizona State University, 411 N. Central Avenue, Phoenix AZ 85004, USA. Crista.Johnson@asu.edu

BACKGROUND: The U.S. has become home to growing numbers of immigrants and refugees from countries where the traditional practice of female genital cutting (FGC) is prevalent. These women under-utilize reproductive health care, and challenge healthcare providers in providing culturally appropriate care. PURPOSE: This study examined Somali immigrant women’s experiences with the U.S. healthcare system, exploring how attitudes, perceptions, and cultural values, such as FGC, influence their use of reproductive health care. METHODS: A mixed-method community-based participatory research (CBPR) collaboration with a Somali refugee community was conducted from 2005 to 2008 incorporating surveys, semi-structured focus groups, and individual interviews. Providers caring for this community were also interviewed to gain their perspectives and experiences. RESULTS: The process of establishing a partnership with a Somali community is described wherein the challenges, successes, and lessons learned in the process of conducting CBPR are examined. Challenges obtaining informed consent, language barriers, and reliance on FGC self-report were surmounted through mobilization of community social networks, trust-building, and the use of a video-elicitation device. The community partnership collaborated around shared goals of voicing unique healthcare concerns of the community to inform the development of interventional programs to improve culturally-competent care. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based participatory research using mixed-methods is critical to facilitating trust-building and engaging community members as active participants in every phase of the research process, enabling the rigorous and ethical conduct of research with refugee communities.

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A community based study on the change of practice of female genital mutilation in a Sudanese village

International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2001 Aug;74(2):179-185

A community based study on the change of practice of female genital mutilation in a Sudanese village.

Almroth L, Almroth-Berggren V, Hassaneim OM, El Hadi N, Al-Said SSE, Hasan SSA, Lithell UB, Bergström S


Objective: To investigate the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM), among young and old parents. Methods: One hundred and twenty young parents and grandparents in a rural area in central Sudan were randomly selected for interviews carried out according to structured questionnaires with open answer possibilities. Results: All female respondents had undergone FGM. Of the young respondents, 44% had decided not to let their daughters undergo FGM. Young fathers were more involved in the decision process than previously known, especially when decisions were taken not to perform FGM. Tradition and social pressure were the main motives for performing FGM. Sexuality was an important aspect, mentioned both as motives for and against FGM. Religious belief and education level significantly affected to what extent FGM was practiced. Conclusion: This is the first community based study of FGM indicating a significant shift in practice between generations, young parents starting to question the value of FGM.

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Impact of a communication programme on female genital cutting in eastern Nigeria

Trop Med Int Health. 2006 Oct; 11(10):1594-1603

Impact of a communication programme on female genital cutting in eastern Nigeria

Babalola S, Brasington A, Agbasimalo A, Helland A, Nwanguma E, Onah N


Objectives  This study describes a female genital cutting (FGC) elimination communication programme in Enugu State and assesses its impact in changing relevant knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions.

Methods  The FGC programme combined a community mobilization component with targeted advocacy and mass media activities. Data for assessing the impact of the programme derived from baseline and follow-up surveys in three intervention local government areas (LGA) in Enugu State and three comparison LGAs in Ebonyi State. An ideation model of behaviour change guided the analyses of the impact of the programme on personal advocacy for FGC, perceived self-efficacy to refuse pressure to perform FGC, perceived social support for FGC discontinuation, perceived benefits of FGC, perceived health complications of FGC and intention not to perform FGC on daughters. The analytical methods include comparing change in pertinent outcome variables from baseline to follow-up in the two study states and using logistic regression on follow-up data for the intervention state to assess the link between programme exposure and the relevant outcome indicators.

Results  The data show that while the pertinent ideational factors and the intention not to perform FGC either worsened or remained stagnant in Ebonyi State, they improved significantly in Enugu State. The logistic regression results show that programme exposure is associated with the expected improvements in all the pertinent indicators.

Conclusion  The multimedia communication programme has been effective in changing FGC-related attitudes and promoting the intention not to perform FGC.

This article can be accessed in this LINK