Tag Archives: Cross-Cultural comparison

Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.

Adolescent and Parental Reactions to Puberty in Nigeria and Kenya: A Cross-Cultural and Intergenerational Comparison.

FREEJ Adolesc Health. 2017 Oct;61(4S):S35-S41. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.03.014.

Adolescent and Parental Reactions to Puberty in Nigeria and Kenya: A Cross-Cultural and Intergenerational Comparison.

Bello BM, Fatusi AO, Adepoju OE, Maina BW, Kabiru CW, Sommer M, Mmari K.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This qualitative study assesses the cross-cultural and intergenerational reactions of young adolescents and parents to puberty in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, and Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Sixty-six boys and girls (aged 11-13 years) and their parents participated in narrative interviews conducted in English or local languages in two urban poor settings in Ile-Ife and Nairobi. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated, and uploaded into Atlas.ti software for coding and analysis. RESULTS: Reactions of parents and adolescents to puberty were similar across both sites, with few exceptions. Adolescents’ reactions to bodily changes varied from anxiety to pride. Adolescents generally tend to desire greater privacy; trying to hide their developing bodies from others. Most female adolescents emphasized breast development as compared with menstruation as the mark for pubertal initiation, while males emphasized voice changes. Among some ethnic groups in Nairobi, parents and adolescents view male circumcision as the hallmark of adolescence. Parents in both sites reported that with pubertal changes, adolescents tend to become arrogant and engaged in sexual relationships. Parents’ reported responses to puberty include: educating adolescents on bodily changes; counseling on sexual relationships; and, provision of sanitary towels to females. Parents’ responses are generally focused more on daughters. Approaches used by mothers in educating adolescents varied from the provision of factual information to fear/scare tactics. Compared with their own generation, parents perceive that their own children achieve pubertal development earlier, receive more puberty-related education from mothers, and are more exposed to and influenced by media and information technologies. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents’ responses to their pubertal bodily changes include anxiety, shame, and pride. Adolescents desire greater privacy. Parents’ reactions were broadly supportive of their children’s pubertal transition, but mothers’ communication approaches may sometimes be inappropriate in terms of using fear/scare tactics.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Reconciling female genital circumcision with universal human rights

Dev World Bioeth. 2017 Sep 18. doi: 10.1111/dewb.12173. [Epub ahead of print]

Reconciling female genital circumcision with universal human rights

Gordon JS

ABSTRACT

One of the most challenging issues in cross-cultural bioethics concerns the long-standing socio-cultural practice of female genital circumcision (FGC), which is prevalent in many African countries and the Middle East as well as in some Asian and Western countries. It is commonly assumed that FGC, in all its versions, constitutes a gross violation of the universal human rights of health, physical integrity, and individual autonomy and hence should be abolished. This article, however, suggests a mediating approach according to which one form of FGC, the removal of the clitoris foreskin, can be made compatible with the high demands of universal human rights. The argument presupposes the idea that human rights are not absolutist by nature but can be framed in a meaningful, culturally sensitive way. It proposes important limiting conditions that must be met for the practice of FGC to be considered in accordance with the human rights agenda.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Between Moral Relativism and Moral Hypocrisy: Reframing the Debate on “FGM”

Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2016 Jun;26(2):105-44. doi: 10.1353/ken.2016.0009.

Between Moral Relativism and Moral Hypocrisy: Reframing the Debate on “FGM”

Earp BD

ABSTRACT

The spectrum of practices termed “Female Genital Mutilation” (or FGM) by the World Health Organization is sometimes held up as a counterexample to moral relativism. Those who advance this line of thought suggest the practices are so harmful in terms of their physical and emotional consequences, as well as so problematic in terms of their sexist or oppressive implications, that they provide sufficient, rational grounds for the assertion of a universal moral claim–namely, that all forms of FGM are wrong, regardless of the cultural context. However, others point to cultural bias and moral double standards on the part of those who espouse this argument, and have begun to question the received interpretation of the relevant empirical data on FGM as well. In this article I assess the merits of these competing perspectives. I argue that each of them involves valid moral concerns that should be taken seriously in order to move the discussion forward. In doing so, I draw on the biomedical “enhancement” literature in order to develop a novel ethical framework for evaluating FGM (and related interventions–such as female genital “cosmetic” surgery and nontherapeutic male circumcision) that takes into account the genuine harms that are at stake in these procedures, but which does not suffer from being based on cultural or moral double standards.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

‘Gosh’: A cross-cultural encounter with a Somali woman, a male interpreter and a gynecologist on female genital cutting/mutilation.

Patient Educ Couns. 2014 Aug 28. pii: S0738-3991(14)00363-2. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2014.08.014. [Epub ahead of print]

‘Gosh’: A cross-cultural encounter with a Somali woman, a male interpreter and a gynecologist on female genital cutting/mutilation.

Schuster S.

ABSTRACT

I saw the woman for the first time on the gynecological emergency at a Swiss University Women’s Hospital. She was referred for assessment of lower abdominal pain, which turned out to be a ‘cover-up’ for the subsequent case presentation. The 22-years old, married woman had a low proficiency in English and none in German, and was an asylum seeker from Somalia. The history and clinical examination for lower abdominal pain revealed no pathological results – but her female external genitalia presented an unforgettable finding I had never seen before during my clinical career in Switzerland and also in Cameroon.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION IN SPAIN: POSSIBILITIES OF PREVENTION IN THE AREAS OF PRIMARY HEALTH CARE, EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SERVICES

Migraciones. 2006, 19, 189-217FREE

[Female genital mutilation in Spain: Possibilities of prevention in the areas of primary health care, education and social services] [Article in Spanish]

Kaplan A, Torán P, Bermúdez K and Castany MJ

EXTRACT

… En muchos países del África subsahariana la realización de mutilaciones genitales femeninas (MGF) es una práctica habitual, en el contexto cultural de los ritos de paso de la infancia a la edad adulta y como elemento de socialización de las niñas. Existe todo un entramado de creencias culturales, tradiciones y gerontocracias que perpetúan estas intervenciones contra la integridad física de las mujeres (Ahmadu, 2000; Hellsten, 2004).  A la práctica de las MGF se asocian complicaciones físicas y psicológicas con un fuerte impacto sobre la salud y el bienestar de las mujeres (Craft, 1997; Dorkenoo, 1995; Morison, 2001; El-Defrawi, 2001). La incorporación a nuestra sociedad de familias procedentes de entornos geográficos, históricos, sociales y culturales diversos, donde la realización de MGF tiene un fuerte arraigo identitario…

This text can be accessed for free in this LINK

Human rights for women: the ethical and legal discussion about Female Genital Mutilation in Germany in comparison with other Western European countries

Med Health Care Philos. 2010 Aug;13(3):269-78. doi: 10.1007/s11019-010-9245-4.

Human rights for women: the ethical and legal discussion about Female Genital Mutilation in Germany in comparison with other Western European countries.

Krása K.

Institut für Geschichte und Ethik der Medizin, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Glueckstr. 10, 91054, Erlangen, Germany. kerstin.krasa@ethik.med.uni-erlangen.de

ABSTRACT

Within Western European countries the number of women and girls already genitally mutilated or at risk, is rising due to increasing rates of migration of Africans. The article compares legislative and ethical practices within the medical profession concerning female genital mutilation (FGM) in these countries. There are considerable differences in the number of affected women and in legislation and guidelines. For example, in France, Great Britain and Austria FGM is included in the criminal code as elements of crime, whereas in Germany and Switzerland FGM is brought to trial as bodily injury. So far trials only in France and Switzerland in connection with FGM resulted in convictions. France and Great Britain as former Colonial countries serve as an example of countries with a comparably great number of African immigrants. These countries have the best possibilities to intervene preventatively, due to legislation and detailed medical guidelines. For instance, an obligation exists in France to inform administrative and medical authorities if FGM is suspected. FGM so far is not explicitly part of the curriculum for medical training in any of the examined countries.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Comparative Study of Meanings, Beliefs, and Practices of Female Circumcision Among Three Nigerian Tribes in the United States and Nigeria

J Transcult Nurs. April 2004 15: 103-113

Comparative Study of Meanings, Beliefs, and Practices of Female Circumcision Among Three Nigerian Tribes in the United States and Nigeria

Prisca O. Anuforo, Lola Oyedele, Dula F. Pacquiao, Kean University

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to gain insight into the meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria. Participant-observations occurred in three sites in Nigeria (Ibadan, Lagos, and Owerri) and in Essex County, New Jersey (Newark, Irvington, and East Orange). A total of 50 informants included adult males and females from the three main Nigerian ethnic tribes: Igbo, Yoruba, and Hausa. Leininger’s culture care theory of diversity and universality was the study framework. Findings revealed existence of similarities and differences in the cultural meanings, beliefs, and practices among the tribes. Religion, education, and occupation were significant factors influencing informants’ attitudes toward continuation of the practice. Government-sponsored public education and influence by the media were found to increase informants’ awareness of complications of female circumcision. Changes in attitudes toward the practice and use of alternative practices were evident.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Judging the Other: Responding to Traditional Female Genital Surgeries

Hastings Center Report. Article first published online: 23 MAR 2012. DOI: 10.2307/3527930. May-June 1996 26(3)31–40,

Judging the Other: Responding to Traditional Female Genital Surgeries

Sandra D. Lane and Robert A. Rubinstein

ABSTRACT

Western feminists, physicians, and ethicists condemn the traditional genital surgeries performed on women in some non-Western cultures. But coming to moral judgment is not the end of the story; we must also decide what to do about our judgments. We must learn to work respectfully with, not independently of, local resources for cultural self-examination and change.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

[Female sexual dysfunctions: myths, realities and perspectives].

Encephale. 2010 Oct;36(5):357-8. Epub 2010 Jan 27.

[Female sexual dysfunctions: myths, realities and perspectives].

[Article in French]

Douki Dedieu S.

No abstract is available for this article.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

 

Knowledge of female genital cutting and experience with women who are circumcised: a survey of nurse-midwives in the United States.

J Midwifery Womens Health. 2010 Jan-Feb;55(1):46-54.

Knowledge of female genital cutting and experience with women who are circumcised: a survey of nurse-midwives in the United States.

Hess RF, Weinland J, Saalinger NM.

Malone University, Canton, OH, USA. rfhess@researchforhealth.org

ABSTRACT

Thousands of women with a history of female genital cutting (FGC) have immigrated to the United States. The purpose of this study was to assess certified nurse-midwives’ (CNMs’) knowledge of FGC and to explore their experiences caring for African immigrant women with a history of genital cutting. A descriptive survey design was used. A random sample of 600 CNMs from the member list of the American College of Nurse-Midwives was surveyed. Two hundred forty-three CNMs completed a survey of FGC knowledge and provider experience. The respondents exhibited more correct medical knowledge about FGC than knowledge of cultural and legal issues. Differences in correct or incorrect knowledge were statistically significant based on provider experience. Almost 70% of respondents could identify infibulation. Less than 20% knew that both Muslim and Christian women are circumcised. Fifty-seven percent knew that it is illegal in the United States to circumcise women younger than 18 years of age. We found that discussions between CNMs and clients who were circumcised regarding FGC-related concerns and complications were minimal. Women with a history of FGC want female providers. Reinfibulation poses an ethical dilemma for some CNMs. Nurse-midwives in the United States need to learn more about FGC and the cultures of their clients in order to provide culturally competent care.