Tag Archives: Cultural characteristics

Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.

Changing practices and shifting meanings of female genital cutting among the Maasai of Arusha and Manyara regions of Tanzania.

Cult Health Sex. 2017 Apr 18:1-16. doi: 10.1080/13691058.2017.1313449. [Epub ahead of print]

Changing practices and shifting meanings of female genital cutting among the Maasai of Arusha and Manyara regions of Tanzania.

Van Bavel H, Coene G, Leye E.

ABSTRACT

Using mixed methods that combined participant observation and semi-structured in-depth interviews, this study looked at changing practices and shifting meanings of female genital cutting among the Maasai people in Tanzania. The findings suggest that an increasing social pressure to abandon female genital cutting has inspired the hiding of the practice, causing the actual cutting to become detached from its traditional ceremonial connotations. This detaching of cutting from ceremony has created a shift in meanings: the ceremony still carries the meaning of passage into adulthood, while the cutting seems to function as a way of inscribing Maasai identity into the body. The detaching of genital cutting from ceremony offers those willing to continue the practice the opportunity to do so without being prosecuted, and those unwilling to undergo or perform the practice the opportunity to evade it by faking the cutting without being socially sanctioned for it. Findings also suggest changing attitudes towards the practice among the younger generation as the result of education. Maasai culture and the practice of female genital cutting are not static but actively challenged and reinterpreted from within the community, with formally schooled and women taking up leading roles in reshaping gender norms.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Female genital mutilation: Cultural and psychological implications

Sexual and Marital Therapy. 2002, 17(2):161-170.

Female genital mutilation: cultural and psychological implications.

Whitehorn J, Ayonrinde O & Maingay S

ABSTRACT

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is widely practised in several regions of the world. It is often associated with physical, psychological, sexual and social sequelae. Migration of persons from cultures that actively practice FGM to the UK and other Western countries increases the chances that clinicians will be faced with patients who have undergone this procedure. Clinical presentations often occur against a background of differences in culture and social identity, which may pose a challenge to any form of intervention. Perceptions of normalcy, human rights violation and gender roles may also differ. This paper discusses historical, cultural, gender and identity issues associated with FGM and its psychological and sexual implications.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

The Practice of Puxa-Puxa among Mozambican Women: A Systematic Inventory of Motives.

J Sex Res. 2013 Aug 7. [Epub ahead of print] LME

The Practice of Puxa-Puxa among Mozambican Women: A Systematic Inventory of Motives.

Vera Cruz G, Mullet E.

Department of Psychology, Eduardo Mondlane University.

ABSTRACT

Puxa-puxa is the elongation of the labia minora of the genital organs. It is one of the most widespread genital practices among women in Mozambique, and the practice seems to be specific to this country. The motives underlying this practice and its abandonment were examined in a theory-driven way. A total of 616 women currently living in the provinces of Maputo, Zambezia, and Nampula, aged 18 to 62, were presented with one of two questionnaires that contained items about possible motives for practicing puxa-puxa or possible motives for not practicing it. Seven separable motives for practicing puxa-puxa were found, and the most highly rated were “Having a satisfying sexual life”; “Satisfying my sexual partner”; and “Gaining self-control.” Five separable motives for not practicing puxa-puxa were found, and the most highly rated were “Disliking a painful practice”; “Affirming one’s value as a person”; and “Avoiding contamination.” The main findings of the study are that the practice of puxa-puxa is associated with deep psychological motives common to most women in most cultures, namely having a satisfying sexual life with a reliable partner, creating the conditions for having children, and being able to care for them. The abandonment of this practice is largely the result of personal decisions, which are not taken under constraint and which are not exclusively taken from fear of illness.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Aproximation to the ablation/female genital mutilation (A/FGM) from the transcultural nursing. A bibliographical revision.

Enferm. glob. vol.11 no.28 Murcia oct. 2012FREE

Aproximation to the ablation/female genital mutilation (A/FGM) from the transcultural nursing. A bibliographical revision. (Article in Spanish)

Jiménez Ruiz I. Almansa Martínez P, Pastor Bravo MM, Pina Roche F

ABSTRACT

Objective: Analysing the argumentations in favour to the Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) with the intention to know and understand the complex and subjective reality of this practice.  Material and method: bibliographical search and revision on the net in order to accessing Web directories of organizations and the main health sciences data bases. Results: The analysis of the biography contributes with a big quantity of information regarding the supportiveness of this practice and the complications derived from it, clarifying the complex situations involved in its perpetuation. Conclusions: The FGM is understood as a cultural care of women determined by socio-cultural, hygienic-aesthetic, religious-spiritual and sexual factors among others related with health. In this way, a wide range of secondary complications to FGM have been described.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

Afr Health Sci. 2012 Dec;12(4):412-5.FREE

Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

Martinelli M, Ollé-Goig JE. Hôpital Balbala, Djibouti.

ABSTRACT

The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

[Feminine genitals modification: survey of a new phenomenon for nurse today. Second Part].

Prof Inferm. 2006 Oct-Dec;59(4):242-5.

[Feminine genitals modification: survey of a new phenomenon for nurse today. Second Part]. [Article in Italian]

Mitello L, Proietti A.

DAI, Dott., Coord.re Infermieristico Azienda Ospedaliera S. Camillo-Fornanini, Prof a c. Università degli studi di Roma La Sapienza, Italy.

ABSTRACT

The study was performed to find out how much health workers in a Rome Hospital knew about the phenomenon of female genital modifications. For this purpose a questionnaire previously employed in a project financed by the EEC and the Rome City Council was used.

There is no LINK to view this article online.

Female genital mutilation: potential for HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa and prospect for epidemiologic investigation and intervention.

Afr J Reprod Health. 2007 Apr;11(1):33-42. FREE

Female genital mutilation: potential for HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa and prospect for epidemiologic investigation and intervention.

Monjok E, Essien EJ, Holmes L Jr.

Institute of Community Health, University of Houston, Texas Medical center, Houston, TX 77030, USA

ABSTRACT

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) which involves alteration of the female genitalia for non-medical grounds is prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa, associated with long-term genitourinary complications, and possible HIV transmission. This mini-review aims to examine FGM and the possibility of HIV transmission through this procedure. We performed an electronic search using Medline for articles published between 1966 to 2006 for evidence of FGM practice, its complications, and the nexus between this procedure and HIV sero-positivity. The results indicate ongoing FGM practice, albeit prevalence reduction, due probably to the increasing knowledge of the consequences of FGM as a result of non-sterile techniques. Secondly, the complications of FGM are well established which include Genitourinary disorders. Further, while data is limited on HIV transmission via FGM, there is biologic plausibility in suggesting that FGM may be associated with increasing prevalence of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper recommends further studies in order to assess the association between FGM and HIV transmission.

This article can be accessed in this LINK.

African women and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: implications for female related cultural practices.

Int Q Community Health Educ. 2006-2007;27(1):87-94.

African women and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: implications for female related cultural practices.

Uwe EA, Ekuri EE, Asuquo PN.

University of Calabar, Nigeria. ekauwe2002@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Violence against women in Africa dates back to primordial society, where cultural practices such as female genital mutilation and polygamous marriages were prescribed and supervised by male-dominated social structures. Women’s status has always been at high risk, since such practices are male supervised. With the upsurge of the HIV/AIDS pandemic globally, research needs to focus on such cultural practices, the dangers of such practices, and possible eradication. The present article examines the change-resistant, prevailing religious, social, and psychological barriers to change.

This article can be accessed in this LINK.

Have we made progress in Somalia after 30 years of interventions? Attitudes toward female circumcision among people in the Hargeisa district.

BMC Res Notes. 2013 Mar 27;6(1):122. [Epub ahead of print]FREE

Have we made progress in Somalia after 30 years of interventions? Attitudes toward female circumcision among people in the Hargeisa district.

Gele AA, Bø BP, Sundby J.

BACKGROUND: Female circumcision is a major public health problem that largely contributes to the ill-health of women and their children globally. Accordingly, the international community is committed to take all possible measures to abolish the practice that is internationally considered to be absolutely intolerable. While the practice is a social tradition shared by people in 28 African countries, there is no country on earth where FC is more prevalent than in Somalia. Yet, since the early 1990s, there is no quantitative study that has investigated whether the perception towards the practice among Somali men and women in Somalia has improved or not. Thus, this cross-sectional quantitative study examines the attitudes toward the practice among people in Hargeisa, Somalia.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 215 randomly selected persons, including both men and women, was conducted in Hargeisa, Somalia from July to September of 2011. Participants were interviewed using structured questionnaires, with questions including the circumcision status of the female participants, the type of circumcision, if one has the intention to circumcise his/her daughter, whether one supports the continuation or discontinuation of the practice and men’s perceptions toward having an uncircumcised woman as a wife.Result: The findings show that 97% of the study’s participants were circumcised with no age differences. Of this, 81% were subjected to Type 3, while 16% were subjected to either Type 1 or 2 and only 3% were left uncircumcised. Approximately 85% of the respondents had intention to circumcise their daughters, with 13% were planning the most radical form. Among men, 96% preferred to marry circumcised women, whereas overall, 90% of respondents supported the continuation of the practice. The vast majority of the study’s respondents had a good knowledge of the negative health effects of female circumcision. In multivariate logistic regressions, with an adjustment for all other important variables, female circumcision (the Sunna form) is a religious requirement 16.5 (2.43-112.6) and the Sunna form is not harmful 25.1(2.35-281.1), are the two factors significantly associated with the continuation of female circumcision. Moreover, females were less likely to support the continuation of FC compared to their male counterparts (aOR 0.07; CI: 0.05-0.88).

CONCLUSION: The study shows that the support towards the persistence of the practice is profoundly high in Somalia. People are aware of the health and human rights effect of female circumcision, and yet they support the continuation of the practice. Therefore, over 30 years of campaigns with limited progress demand an alternative approach towards the eradication of female circumcision in Somalia.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

The changing nature of adolescence in the Kssena-Nankana District of Northern Ghana

Stud Fam Plann. June 1999 30(2)95–111, June 1999

The changing nature of adolescence in the Kssena-Nankana District of Northern Ghana

Mensch BS, Bagah D, Clark WH, Binka F

ABSTRACT

This study reports the results of a primarily qualitative investigation of adolescent reproductive behavior in the Kassena-Nankana District, an isolated rural area in northern Ghana, where traditional patterns of marriage, family formation, and social organization persist. The study is based on in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions with adolescents, parents, chiefs, traditional leaders, youth leaders, and health workers, supplemented by quantitative data from the 1996 wave of a panel survey of women of reproductive age conducted by the Navrongo Health Research Centre. The social environment that adolescent boys and girls in the Kassena-Nankana District encounter and its links to reproductive behavior are described. The principal question is whether even in this remote rural area, the social environment has been altered in ways that have undermined traditional sexual and reproductive patterns. The survey data indicate a considerable increase in girls’ education and the beginning of a decline in the incidence of early marriage. The qualitative data suggest that social institutions, systems, and practices such as female circumcision that previously structured the lives ofadokscent boys and girls have eroded, leading to an apparent increase in premarital sexual activity.