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Frequency-Dependent Social Transmission and the Interethnic Transfer of Female Genital Modification in the African Diaspora and Indigenous Populations of Colombia

Hum Nat. 2015 Oct 15. [Epub ahead of print]

Frequency-Dependent Social Transmission and the Interethnic Transfer of Female Genital Modification in the African Diaspora and Indigenous Populations of Colombia

Ross CT, Campiño PJ, Winterhalder B

ABSTRACT

We present a quantitative account based on ethnographic and documentary research of the prevalence of female genital modification (FGMo) in the African diaspora and indigenous populations of Colombia. We use these data to test hypotheses concerning the cultural evolutionary drivers of costly trait persistence, attenuation, and intergroup transmission. The uptake of FGMo by indigenous populations in Colombia is consistent with frequency-dependent hypotheses for the social transmission of the FGMo trait from the African diaspora population in the period following the era of slavery in Colombia. The prevalence and severity of practices related to FGMo decline with level of sociocultural integration into mainstream Colombian culture. Our results provide empirical support for the cultural evolutionary models proposed by Ross et al. (2015) to describe the transmission dynamics of FGMo and other costly traits. Analysis of costly trait dynamics contributes knowledge useful to applied anthropology and may be of interest in policy design and human rights monitoring in Colombia and elsewhere.

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[Female genital mutilation: have you been dealing with them?]

Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2009 Jul-Aug;37(7-8):683. doi: 10.1016/j.gyobfe.2009.06.001. Epub 2009 Jul 7.

[Female genital mutilation: have you been dealing with them?]. [Article in French]

Ivorra-Deleuze D.

Service de gynécologie-obstétrique, hôpital Nord, AP-HM, chemin des Bourrelys, 13015 Marseille, France. ivorra_delphine@yahoo.fr

No abstract is available for this article.

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Female genital mutilation in developing countries: an agenda for public health response

European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2004 Oct;116(2):144-151

Female genital mutilation in developing countries: an agenda for public health response

Jones SD, Ehiri J, Anyanwu E

ABSTRACT

There is uncertainty regarding reasons for persistence of the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) and the best strategies for intervening effectively. In spite of strong international condemnation, the persistence of FGM in many countries suggests that it can only be effectively eliminated when its practitioners are presented with a safe alternative that preserves their culture and, at the same time, protects the health and well being of women. Recognizing that there is no simple solution to the problem, this paper argues that interventions for preventing FGM should be non-directive, culture-specific and multi-faceted to be of practical relevance. Such interventions should not only motivate change, but should also help communities to establish practical means by which that change can occur. Potentially effective prevention interventions targeted at local practitioners of FGM, parents, at-risk adolescents, health and social workers, governments, religious authorities, the civil society, and communities are presented.

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Cultural sensitivity in providing reproductive care to adolescents

Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2004 Oct; (16)5:367-370

Cultural sensitivity in providing reproductive care to adolescents

Omar, Hatim; Richard, Jessica

ABSTRACT

Purpose of review: To provide an exploration of the global attitudes towards reproductive healthcare by adolescent patients, and to review key points in promoting healthy sexual development among adolescents and appropriate guidelines for communicating within the adolescent population.

Recent findings: The adolescent’s perception of healthcare providers and communication with adolescents are inextricably intertwined, hence the need to address both topics. In addition, we will briefly examine the topic of female circumcision and its impact on women’s sexuality. It is necessary to approach this subject because of the increase in the number of individuals that emigrate each year to the United States and Canada from countries that still practise female circumcision. Providing reproductive care for these women has considerable implications for gynecologists and other healthcare providers dealing with reproductive care issues.

Summary: Healthcare providers who are aware of adolescent patients’ developmental stage and cultural diversity are more able to gain the trust of their patients, and consequently are more effective at addressing their needs.

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What’s “normal”: female genital mutilation, psychology, and body image.

J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2004 Summer;59(3):168-70.

What’s “normal”: female genital mutilation, psychology, and body image.

Adams KE.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, USA.

ABSTRACT

Despite international efforts to halt the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM), the number of African girls and women undergoing the procedure is not declining as rapidly as international observers had hoped when the World Health Organization began focusing attention on the practice in the 1960s. This article focuses on the psychological effects of FGM through the example of a patient who had undergone the procedure in childhood and now felt that her closed appearance was “normal” and that to be opened would be “abnormal.” Western advocates must educate themselves about the various cultural forces that lead to FGM in order to help women who have undergone the procedure heal psychologically, thereby breaking the pattern of abuse from generation to generation.

There is no LINK to view this article online.

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Caring for the patient who has undergone female circumcision.

Home Healthc Nurse. 2002 Jan;20(1):30-4; quiz 35.

Caring for the patient who has undergone female circumcision.

Mwangi R, Smith-Stoner M.

Los Angeles County College of Nursing and Allied Health, USA. mssm@earthlink.net

ABSTRACT

Home health and hospice nurses are increasingly called to care for patients the world over. The provision of culturally competent and culturally sensitive care is critical to patient care planning. Viewing the patient holistically and within the context of family and culture provides the basis of most effective care. While nurses may not be providing skilled care directly related to female circumcision, it is important to include all of the patient’s concerns within the framework of a comprehensive plan of care.

This article can be purchased in this LINK.

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Irreversible error: the power and prejudice of female genital mutilation.

J Contemp Health Law Policy. 1996 Spring;12(2):325-53.

Irreversible error: the power and prejudice of female genital mutilation.

Annas CL.

Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law, USA.

There is no abstract available for this article.

There is no link to view this article online.

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Dissecting room: An enlightening guide to the health-care needs of Muslims

Lancet. 2001 july;358(9256):159

Dissecting room: An enlightening guide to the health-care needs of Muslims

Gamal I Serour

Caring for Muslim Patients
Aziz Sheikh, Abdul Rashid Gatrad
London: Radcliffe Medical Press, 2000
Pp 140. £17.95 ISBN-1857753720

Preview

…The hallmarks of this exploration of the interface between faith and health, are a restrained tone and a balance of topics and opinions. However, when the authors deal with certain practices such as female genital mutilation and contraception, they do not differentiate practices that relate to customs, tradition, and certain regional cultures from those that relate to Islamic instructions that should be followed by all observant Muslims, namely Sharia. I believe that when dealing with these controversial issues the authors should have emphasised the proper stance of Islam on these subjects. Doing so would enable health professionals in the UK and Europe to enlighten and inform their patients of what should be done when they are consulted by their patients and to dispel misconceptions about Islamic Sharia on these issues. This information would enable health professionals to provide the best medical service that conforms to the correct and documented beliefs of their Muslim patients…

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Reconciling International Human Rights and Cultural Relativism: The Case of Female Circumcision

Bioethics. 1994 Jan; 8(1):1-26

Reconciling International Human Rights and Cultural Relativism: The Case of Female Circumcision

St Ephen A. James


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The Health Consequences of Female Circumcision: Science, Advocacy, and Standards of Evidence

Med Anthropol Q. 2003 Sept; 17 (3): 394-412

The Health Consequences of Female Circumcision: Science, Advocacy, and Standards of Evidence

Makhlouf Obermeyer C

ABSTRACT

This two-part article addresses questions that have arisen in current debates on the health consequences of female circumcision. The first part responds to a critique of a 1999 article and focuses on three major points: the role of research and advocacy in discussions of harmful effects, the sort of evidence that is appropriate for measuring health effects, and the way in which different disciplines—demography, epidemiology, and anthropology—are brought together to analyze data on health consequences. The second part of the article reviews published sources and provides an update on their results. It shows that few studies are appropriately designed to measure health effects, that circumcision is associated with significantly higher risks of a few well-defined complications, but that for other possible complications the evidence does not show significant differences, [female genital mutilation, female genital cutting, circumcision, health consequences, advocacy, evidence, multidisciplinary]

This article can be purchased in this LINK.