Tag Archives: Culture

A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.

Aproximation to the ablation/female genital mutilation (A/FGM) from the transcultural nursing. A bibliographical revision.

Enferm. glob. vol.11 no.28 Murcia oct. 2012FREE

Aproximation to the ablation/female genital mutilation (A/FGM) from the transcultural nursing. A bibliographical revision. (Article in Spanish)

Jiménez Ruiz I. Almansa Martínez P, Pastor Bravo MM, Pina Roche F


Objective: Analysing the argumentations in favour to the Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) with the intention to know and understand the complex and subjective reality of this practice.  Material and method: bibliographical search and revision on the net in order to accessing Web directories of organizations and the main health sciences data bases. Results: The analysis of the biography contributes with a big quantity of information regarding the supportiveness of this practice and the complications derived from it, clarifying the complex situations involved in its perpetuation. Conclusions: The FGM is understood as a cultural care of women determined by socio-cultural, hygienic-aesthetic, religious-spiritual and sexual factors among others related with health. In this way, a wide range of secondary complications to FGM have been described.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Genital mutilation as an expression of power structures: ending FGM through education, empowerment of women and removal of taboos.

Afr J Reprod Health. 2006 Aug;10(2):13-7.

Genital mutilation as an expression of power structures: ending FGM through education, empowerment of women and removal of taboos.

Finke E.

There is no ABSTRACT available for this article.

There is no LINK available to view this article online.

Female genital mutilation: classification and management.

Nurs Stand. 2007 Oct 24-30;22(7):43-9; quiz 50.

Female genital mutilation: classification and management.

Bikoo M.

Elizabeth Garrett Anderson and Obstetric Hospital, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London. maligaye.bikoo@uclh.nhs.uk


Female genital mutilation is a deeply rooted cultural tradition observed primarily in Africa and among certain communities in the Middle East and Asia. It has considerable health consequences. Women from the practising communities are increasingly seen within healthcare settings but few healthcare professionals are trained to treat their specific healthcare needs.

There is no link to view this article online.

The struggle for abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) in Egypt.

Glob Health Promot. 2009 Mar;16(1):57-60. doi: 10.1177/1757975908100752.

The struggle for abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) in Egypt.

Molleman G, Franse L.

Centre for Knowledge and Quality Management, Netherlands Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (NIGZ), Woerden, The Netherlands. gmolleman@nigz.nl


This commentary describes a visit to the Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting project in Cairo. FGM/C is a very serious problem in Egypt and other countries in the North of Africa. Among girls between the age of 15-17, 77% have been cut, with very serious health consequences. In Egypt, there is a comprehensive strategy led by very enthusiastic employees of the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood with support of UNICEF. At a national level a broad coalition is being built that tries to mobilise the legal, medical and media communities to overcome the practice of FGM/C and realising adequate laws that criminalise FGM/C.At a local level two community projects were started in 160 villages in Upper and Lower Egypt for raising community awareness and dialogue on FGM/C. That is the only way to create a growing social movement that can collectively abandon the practice of FGM/C.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

When cultures collide: female genital cutting and U.S. obstetric practice.

Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Apr;113(4):931-4. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181998ed3.

When cultures collide: female genital cutting and U.S. obstetric practice.

Rosenberg LB, Gibson K, Shulman JF.

Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Science, The Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.


CASE: A 28-year-old primigravida at 41 weeks of gestation, previously unregistered, presented to a tertiary care Labor and Delivery unit reporting painful uterine contractions 7 minutes apart. The patient, a recent immigrant from a Northeastern African country, was accompanied by her extended family. She promptly disclosed that as a 10-year-old she underwent genital cutting in her country of origin.

Physical examination revealed the results of Type III female circumcision, or total removal of the clitoris and labia minora, and infibulation, or sewing together, of the labia majora. The prepuce and body of the clitoris were completely absent. In addition, the external urethral orifice was not visible due to extensive scar tissue overlying the infibulation. The scar tissue was pale gray, avascular, and extended almost the entire length of the labia majora, leaving a relatively small opening. As active labor continued, it became clear that the constricted opening would not allow for fetal descent. The obstetrician in attendance subsequently performed a midline episiotomy through the perineal body. A healthy male neonate was delivered. During the postpartum examination, the obstetrician identified extensive lacerations as well as an almost total separation of the previously fused labia majora.

The obstetrician explained the reasoning for midline episiotomy repair to the patient and her sister, who was continuously at the bedside. The obstetrician also informed the patient that the infibulation separated. As the obstetrician began repairing the internal lacerations, the patient insisted that the labia majora be sewed back together (reinfibulation). Although the obstetrician explained the risks of poor wound healing and infection from suturing a devascularized tissue plane, the sister emphasized the importance of infibulation in their culture and the need to have the circumcised anatomy restored. After careful consideration, the obstetrician performed a repair of the lacerated tissue, including a partial reinfibulation.

This article can be purchased in this LINK.

Cultural issues in child maltreatment

J Paediatr Child Health. Jan 2012 48(1): 30–37

Cultural issues in child maltreatment

Raman S, Hodes D


Aims:  Waves of immigration from the latter half of the 20th century have changed the cultural and ethnic mix of major regions of the world. Dynamic multicultural societies now are a reality across the Western world. The relationship and influence of these diverse cultures to the understanding and identification of child abuse and neglect is challenging and complex. Health professionals working with children from culturally and linguistically diverse groups often find themselves with the challenge of exploring and resolving the tension between definitions of harm in child protection practice and various cultural and child-rearing practices. In this paper, we set out ways of thinking about the influence of culture when approaching and dealing with the suspicion of child maltreatment.

Methods:  We will explore how culture shapes the experiences of childhood, child-rearing practices, and identify common barriers in working with children and families from culturally diverse backgrounds when presenting with child maltreatment. We will use case examples from Europe and Australia to illustrate the real life challenges of working in the area of child maltreatment across cultures. We will review the scientific literature exploring the nexus between culture and child maltreatment, identifying the gaps in the literature and highlight areas for future research.

Results:  We suggest a model for dealing with cultural issues in child maltreatment that is culturally competent and respectful.

Conclusions:  The model for cultural competency in child health and child protective services incorporates four domains for advocacy and action – individual, professional, organisational and systemic.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

New de-infibulation clinic for Royal Women’s in Melbourne.

Aust Nurs J. 2011 Apr;18(9):39.

New de-infibulation clinic for Royal Women’s in Melbourne.

Waters J.

Women’s Health Information Centre, Well Women’s Services, Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne.

No abstract is available for this article.

There is no LINK to view this article online.

Introduction to forensic nursing: a student’s work: female genital mutilation.

Dimens Crit Care Nurs. 2011 Jul-Aug;30(4):190-3.

Introduction to forensic nursing: a student’s work: female genital mutilation.

Hebert LJ.



This article was written by a student interested in female genital mutilation as part of a school project. The article reviews exactly what female genital mutilation entails, its history, and the role of the forensic and critical-care nurse.

This article can be purchased in this LINK