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Stop female genital mutilation: appeal to the international dermatologic community

Int J Dermatol. 2002 May;41(5):253-63.

Stop female genital mutilation: appeal to the international dermatologic community. 

Morrone A, Hercogova J, Lotti T.

Servizio di Medicina Preventiva delle Migrazioni, del Turismo e di Dermatologia Tropicale, Istituto San Gallicano – IRCCS, Roma, Italy. morrone@ifo.it

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional cultural practice, but also a form of violence against girls, which affects their lives as adult women. FGM comprises a wide range of procedures: the excision of the prepuce; the partial or total excision of the clitoris (clitoridectomy) and labia; or the stitching and narrowing of the vaginal orifice (infibulation). The number of girls and women who have been subjected to FGM is estimated at around 137 million worldwide and 2 million girls per year are considered at risk. Most females who have undergone mutilation live in 28 African countries. Globalization and international migration have brought an increased presence of circumcised women in Europe and developed countries. Healthcare specialists need to be made aware and trained in  the physical, psychosexual, and cultural aspects and effects of FGM and in the response to the needs of genitally mutilated women. Health education programs targeted at immigrant communities should include information on sexuality, FGM, and reproduction. Moreover, healthcare workers should both discourage women from  performing FGM on their daughters and receive information on codes of conduct and existing laws. The aim is the total eradication of all forms of FGM.

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Comment in Int J Dermatol. 2003 Jan;42(1):28.

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Ball T: Female genital mutilation.

Nurs Stand. 2008 Oct 8-14;23(5):43-7.

Female genital mutilation.

Ball T.

Princess of Wales Women’s Unit, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham. teresa.ball@heartofengland.nhs.uk

Abstract

This article examines female genital mutilation and describes how a midwifery-led clinic was developed to meet the needs of women affected by this practice.

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Female genital mutilation: cultural awareness and clinical considerations

J Midwifery Womens Health. 2007 Mar-Apr;52(2):158-63.

Female genital mutilation: cultural awareness and clinical considerations.

Braddy CMFiles JA.

Division of Community Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA.

ABSTRACT

Clinicians in the United States are increasingly encountering girls and women who have undergone female genital mutilation. To foster a more trusting relationship with such patients, health care providers must have an accurate understanding of the cultural background surrounding this practice, a working knowledge of the different types of female genital mutilation procedures that may be encountered, and an awareness of both the acute and long-term complications. Some of these complications are potentially fatal, and the correct clinical diagnosis can be lifesaving

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Caring for women who have undergone genital mutilation

Nurs Times. 2004 Jun 29-Jul 6;100(26):32-5.

Caring for women who have undergone genital mutilation

Daley A

ABSTRACT

The term female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-therapeutic reasons. It is practised across all socioeconomic classes by a range of ethnic, cultural, and religious groups (Toubia, 1994; Momoh, 2000). The practice, which is also known as female circumcision, is irreversible and has no health benefits for the woman (Dorkenoo and Elworthy, 1996). Indeed it …

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Research on female circumcision in Somalia.

Newsl Inter Afr Comm Tradit Pract Affect Health Women Child. 1988 Mar;(5):10.

Research on female circumcision in Somalia.

Ahmed SM.

The 1st research on female circumcision and infibulation in Somalia was undertaken by the Women’s Research Unit in the Academy of Sciences and Arts. The project’s aim is to study in depth the magnitude of the problem and to identify the best means of uprooting it through an information campaign against all forms of female circumcision and infibulation. A study has since been conducted in the community of Barja to compare complications at delivery between women who are infibulated and those on whom the mildest form of female circumcision has been performed. Other activities planned include a survey of the practitioners to register the types of methods used, problems encountered and medications used, and to ascertain how these influence the types of circumcisions performed, as well as in-depth interviews with religious leaders exploring the best way of persuading them to come forward and announce that female circumcision is not prescribed in the religion. Case studies will also be conducted with men to learn their points of view since, in spite of their denials, they are the force behind the persistence of the practice.

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