Tag Archives: Demography

Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.

Estimates of female genital mutilation/cutting in 27 African countries and Yemen.

Stud Fam Plann. 2013 Jun;44(2):189-204. doi: 10.1111/j.1728-4465.2013.00352.x.

Estimates of female genital mutilation/cutting in 27 African countries and Yemen.

Yoder PS, Wang S, Johansen E.

ICF Macro, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705, USA. Stan.Yoder@icfi.com


The practice of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has been documented in many countries in Africa and in several countries in Asia and the Middle East, yet producing reliable data concerning its prevalence and the numbers of girls and women affected has proved a major challenge. This study provides estimates of the total number of women aged 15 years and older who have undergone FGM/C in 27 African countries and Yemen. Drawing on national population-based survey data regarding FGM/C prevalence and census data regarding the number of women in each country, we find that almost 87 million girls and women aged 15 and older have been cut in these 28 countries. Producing reliable figures for the number of women affected by FGM/C in these countries allows researchers and program directors to better comprehend the impact of the practice and to mobilize resources for advocacy against it.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

UNICEF Benin FGM/C Country Profile

UNICEF. Benin DHS. 2001.FREE




… While the prevalence of FGM/C among women aged 15-49 varies significantly according to ethnicity, 17% of the women in Benin have undergone some form of FGM/C. This decreases among women in the younger age groups (29 and under).  FGM/C varies significantly across regional and ethnic lines, averaging fewer than 2% in the southern regions of Atlantique, Mono Couffo, Plateau and Oueme, to 58% in Borgou. It is most prevalent among the Peulh (88%), Bariba (77%), and Yoa and Lokpa (72%), and lowest among the Fon (0.3%). FGM/C is not practiced by women of the Adja ethnic group. The prevalence of FGM/C varies significantly according to education as well – 22% of women with no formal schooling have been cut compared to 5% of women with secondary education….

This sheet can be accessed in this LINK

Benin: Report on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Genital Cutting (FGC)

United States Department of State. 2001.FREE

Benin: Report on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Genital Cutting (FGC), 1 June 2001 



…The Benin chapter of the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children (IAC) conducted a survey in 1992. It estimated that the percentage of women who have undergone this procedure is close to 30 percent. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the percentage is closer to 50 percent. However, this figure appears high to many locally based physicians and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

The 1992 survey found that while Type II or excision is widely practiced, the practice is not uniformly distributed throughout the country. It occurs in the northern part of the country, particularly in the departments of Atacora, Borgou, Zou and Alibori. It also occurs in some communities in the southern coastal department of Oueme. The ethnic groups most affected are the Bariba, Peul, Boko, Baatonau, Wama and Nago. The Wama and the Peul (Fulani) ethnic groups perpetrate the practice in Atacora…

This report can be accessed in this LINK

Female Genital Mutilation in Benin

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. FREE

Country Fact Sheet: Female Genital Mutilation in Benin



… According to the 2006 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), which assesses the health of the country‘s population, 13 per cent of women between the ages of 15 and 49 have been subjected to FGM. This is a clear decline in numbers from the time of the 2001 survey, which showed an overall prevalence of nearly 17 per cent. The marked regional disparities in the prevalence of FGM are primarily the result of ethnic differences. The women most frequently cut are Bariba (74 per cent), followed by the Fulbe (72 per cent) and the Yoa and Lokpa (53 per cent)…

This document can be accessed in this LINK

Spatial distribution of female genital mutilation in Nigeria.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Nov;81(5):784-92. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.2009.09-0129.FREE

Spatial distribution of female genital mutilation in Nigeria.

Kandala NB, Nwakeze N, Kandala SN.

University of Warwick, Clinical Sciences Research Institute, Coventry, United Kingdom. n-b.kandala@warwick.ac.uk


The harmful effects of female genital mutilation (FGM) on women are recognized worldwide. Although it is practiced by persons of all socioeconomic backgrounds, there are differences within countries and between communities. The aim of this study was to use the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data to determine the spatial distribution of the prevalence of FGM and associated risk factors. Data were available for 7,620 women; 1,673 (22.0%) interviewed had had FGM and 2,168 women had living children, of whom 485 (22.4%) daughters had undergone FGM. Unmarried women were more likely to report a lower prevalence of FGM. Modernization (education and high socioeconomic status) had minimal impact on the likelihood of FGM, but education plays an important role in the mother’s decision not to circumcise her daughter. It follows from these findings that community factors have a large effect on FGM, with individual factors having little effect on the distribution of FGM.

This article can be accessed for free in this LINK

Female genital cutting. Evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys.

Afr Popul Dev Bull. 1999 Jun-Jul:26-7.

Female genital cutting. Evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys.

[No authors listed]

PIP: This article reports on the prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) in the Central African Republic (CAR), Cote d’Ivoire, Egypt, Eritrea, Mali, Tanzania and Yemen. Evidences from the Demographic and Health Surveys indicate that FGM is widely practiced in these countries. About 9 out of 10 women have had at least some part of their external genitalia removed in Egypt, Eritrea, Mali, and northern Sudan, while in Cote d’Ivoire and the CAR the practice is less common. A comparison of prevalence levels among age groups in women aged 15-49 years revealed little or no decline in FGM; however, the CAR displayed a slight, but continuous, decline in prevalence across age groups. Furthermore, educational level and religion were found to affect the prevalence rate. Also, the 1996 clinical study in Egypt found that more than 70% of the study population had at least part or all of their clitoris and labia minora excised. In Eritrea and Sudan, many women undergo infibulation, the most hazardous and extensive form of female genital cutting, which almost entirely closes off the vaginal opening. The study also showed that women who had undergone the operation had experienced adverse health effects like hemorrhage. Widespread and enduring support for FGM among women was noted in Egypt, Mali, and Sudan; only Eritrea appeared to have a critical mass of opposition to the procedure among the adult population, which suggests an openness to change.

No link found to consult this report online.

Self-reported and observed female genital cutting in rural Tanzania: associated demographic factors, HIV and sexually transmitted infections.

Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Jan;10(1):105-15.

Self-reported and observed female genital cutting in rural Tanzania: associated demographic factors, HIV and sexually transmitted infections.

Klouman E, Manongi R, Klepp KI.

Department of General Practice and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. elise.klouman@medisin.uio.no

OBJECTIVES: To determine (i) the prevalence and type of female genital cutting (FGC) in a rural multi-ethnic village in Tanzania, (ii) its associated demographic factors, (iii) its possible associations with HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and infertility and (iv) to assess the consistency between self-reported and clinically observed FGC.

METHOD: The study was part of a larger community-based, cross-sectional survey with an eligible female population of 1993. All were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-tested and asked whether they were circumcised (n = 1678; 84.2%). Participants aged 15-44 years were interviewed (n = 636; 79.7%), and 399 (50.0%) were gynaecologically examined to screen for STIs and determine the FGC status.

RESULTS: At a mean age of 9.6 years, 45.2% reported being circumcised. In the age-group 15-44 years, 65.5% reported being cut, while FGC was observed in 72.5% and categorized as clitoridectomy or excision. The strongest predictors of FGC were ethnicity and religion, i.e. being a Protestant or a Muslim. FGC was not associated with HIV infection, other STIs or infertility. A positive, non-significant association between FGC and bacterial vaginosis was found with a crude odds ratio of 4.6. There was a significant decline of FGC over the last generation. An inconsistency between self-reported and clinically determined FGC status was observed in more than one-fifth of the women.

CONCLUSION: The data indicate that both women and clinicians might incorrectly report women’s circumcision status. This reveals methodological problems in determining women’s circumcision status in populations practising the most common type of FGC. The positive association between FGC and bacterial vaginosis warrants further investigation.

There is no link to view this article online.

6000 girls at risk every day. Female genital mutilation, although illegal, is still widely practiced.

Womens Health Newsl. 1993 Nov;(20):10-1.

6000 girls at risk every day. Female genital mutilation, although illegal, is still widely practiced.

Darkenoo E.


PIP: 6000 girls face the risk of genital mutilation daily. More than 100 million women worldwide have already undergone genital mutilation. It increases the risk of death during childbirth and of fetal death. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is forced on 1-day-to 18-year-old females (95% of all FGM cases). Most genitally mutilated females live in more than 20 countries in Africa, in some countries in the Middle East, and in a few countries in Asia. The governments do not condone FGM, however. The 1990 African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child calls on governments to abolish harmful traditional, social, and cultural practices. Migration has brought affected girls and women to Europe, Canada, the US, and Australia. About 1000 girls in these countries are at risk of genital mutilation. 10 social work departments in the UK have had to intervene in cases of suspected FGM. Another 18 departments think that it may be practiced in their communities. FGM predates Islam, and the Koran doe not refer to it; so, contrary to popular belief, FGM is not a religious requirement for Muslims. The underlying reason for FGM is the suppression and control of female sexuality. It is indeed one of the more extreme forms of female oppression. The UN Draft Convention on Violence against Women addresses FGM. Other international legal instruments are the UN Convention to Eliminate All Forms of Discrimination Against Women and the UN Children’s Convention. The European parliament calls on member countries to move against FGM. In 1985, the UK outlawed FGM. Minority black and marginalized women and girls are at greatest risk of FGM in the UK. All local UK authorities should have an antiracist and multicultural policy protecting girls from FGM and provide services addressing the special health needs of genitally mutilated women.

There is no link to view this article online.