Gender-Based Domestic Violence against Children: Experiences of Girl-Children in Nigeria
Esere MO, Idowu AI, Omotosho JA
This study investigated the dynamics of gender-based domestic violence against children in Nigeria. This qualitative study explored the experiences of 20 purposively selected girl-children (age range = 12 to 15 years) from two SOS Children’s Village who have been victims of Domestic Violence (DV). Qualitative data on DV experiences and associated factors were collected through 6 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Physical violence was reported by 90% of the participants; psychological abuse by 80% and violent sexual abuse (rape) by 10%. Major factors associated with last episode of DV experiences included: inability to finish selling wares that were being hawked, late preparation of food, getting home late from the market, burning of the employer’s cloth while ironing, refusal to be genitally cut and refusal to be raped by the man of the house. Self-reported consequences of DV by victims included amongst others: constant headaches (30%) physical injury (25%), sleep disturbances (20%), excessive fear and anxiety (10%), hatred for men (10%) and suicidal ideation (5%). These findings suggest that DV may be playing significant but salient role in the poor state of health of Nigerian children and effective intervention processes at all levels are needed to address it.
Prevalence and effects of violence against women in a rural community in Minia governorate, Egypt.
Habib SR, Abdel Azim EK, Fawzy IA, Kamal NN, El Sherbini AM.
Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Egypt.
This study was carried out to investigate prevalence and the characteristics of domestic violence (DV) against women in a rural area in Minia governorate, Egypt, as well as its physical and psychological consequences. Seven hundred and seventy-two women were interviewed. Sociodemographic data were collected; the WHO questionnaire was used to identify the abuse; the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IIIR (SCID) to detect psychiatric disorders. Abused females constituted 57.4% of the total sample. There were significant relationships between DV and low education, low income, higher number of children, and husband’s education. Psychiatric disorders occurred in 18% of the sample. There were statistically significant relationships between psychological and physical abuse of women and the occurrence of psychiatric disorders. In conclusion, DV against women was related to various negative health outcomes, and it is recommended to be given its real importance in both Forensic Medicine Council and in psychiatric assessment.
Violence against women is one reflection of the unequal power relationship between men and women in societies. Reflections of this inequality include marriage at a very young age, lack of information or choice about fertility control and forced pregnancy within marriage. The different forms of violence against women are: domestic violence and rape, genitalmutilation or, gender-based violence by police and security forces, gender-based violence against women during armed conflict, gender-based violence against women refugees and asylum-seekers, violence associated with prostitution and pornography, violence in the workplace, including sexual harassment. Violence against women is condemned, whether it occurs in a societal setting or a domestic setting. It is not a private or family matter. The FIGO Committee for the Study of Ethical Aspects of Human Reproduction released statements to physicians treating women on this issue. Physicians are ethically obliged to inform themselves about the manifestations of violence and recognize cases, to treat the physical and psychological results of violence, to affirm to their patients that violent acts toward them are not acceptable and to advocate for social infrastructures to provide women the choice of seeking secure refuge and ongoing counselling.
Female genital mutilation in developing countries: an agenda for public health response
Jones SD, Ehiri J, Anyanwu E
There is uncertainty regarding reasons for persistence of the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) and the best strategies for intervening effectively. In spite of strong international condemnation, the persistence of FGM in many countries suggests that it can only be effectively eliminated when its practitioners are presented with a safe alternative that preserves their culture and, at the same time, protects the health and well being of women. Recognizing that there is no simple solution to the problem, this paper argues that interventions for preventing FGM should be non-directive, culture-specific and multi-faceted to be of practical relevance. Such interventions should not only motivate change, but should also help communities to establish practical means by which that change can occur. Potentially effective prevention interventions targeted at local practitioners of FGM, parents, at-risk adolescents, health and social workers, governments, religious authorities, the civil society, and communities are presented.
Salihu HM,August EM, Salemi JL, Weldeselasse H, Sarro YS, Alio AP
Objective To determine whether female genital mutilation (FGM) is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV) and its subtypes (physical, sexual and emotional).
Design Population-based cross-sectional study.
Setting The study used the 2006 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in Mali.
Population A total of 7875 women aged 15–49 years who responded to the domestic violence and female circumcision modules in the 2006 administration of the DHS in Mali.
Methods Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to measure risk for IPV.
Main outcome measures The outcomes of interest were IPV and its subtypes.
Results Women with FGM were at heightened odds of IPV (aOR 2.71, 95% CI 2.17–3.38) and IPV subtypes: physical (aOR 2.85, 95% CI 2.22–3.66), sexual (aOR 3.24, 95% CI 1.80–5.82), and emotional (aOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.68–3.11). The odds of IPV increased with ascending FGM severity (P for trend <0.0001). The most elevated odds were observed among women with severe FGM, who were nearly nine times as likely to experience more than one IPV subtype (aOR 8.81, 95% CI 5.87–13.24).
Conclusions Study findings underscore the need for multi-tiered strategies, incorporating policy and education, to reduce FGM and IPV, potentially improving the holistic health and wellbeing of Malian women.
Female genital mutilation and domestic violence among Egyptian women.
Refaat A, Dandash KF, el Defrawi MH, Eyada M.
Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.
The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between female circumcision and domestic violence. Results showed that women who suffered from domestic violence and women who experienced genital circumcision shared many low socioeconomic and educational characteristics. Circumcised women were more likely to support continuation of female circumcision, to circumcise their daughters, and to accept the right of husbands to beat their wives.