Tag Archives: Education

Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.

Counselling professionals’ awareness and understanding of female genital mutilation/cutting: Training needs for working therapeutically with survivors.

FREECouns Psychother Res. 2017 Dec;17(4):309-319. doi: 10.1002/capr.12136. Epub 2017 Jul 20.

Counselling professionals’ awareness and understanding of female genital mutilation/cutting: Training needs for working therapeutically with survivors.

Jackson C


Background: There is a dearth of literature that has looked at the psychological  impact of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), and little is known about the understanding and awareness of FGM/C amongst counselling professionals. Method: An online survey was completed by 2073 BACP members. The survey covered four broad themes: demographics; awareness and understanding of FGM/C; experience of working therapeutically with survivors; and FGM/C training. Descriptive and inferential analyses were undertaken on quantitative data, and thematic content analysis was undertaken on qualitative data. Results: Only a small proportion of respondents (10%) had knowingly worked with survivors of FGM/C. Overall, respondents lacked confidence in their awareness and understanding of FGM/C, including their safeguarding duties. Having cultural respect, knowledge and understanding was perceived as the most helpful factor
when working with this client group. Less than a quarter of respondents had undertaken any training with regard to FGM/C, although the vast majority expressed a desire to do so. Discussion: This research has highlighted the importance of improving signposting to existing training and educational resources around FGM/C, as well as the need to develop new resources where appropriate. The importance of embedding cultural competency into core practitioner training, not just training specific to FGM/C, is paramount.

This article can be accessed in this LINK.

Educating about female genital mutilation.

Educ Prim Care. 2016 Oct 28:1-4. [Epub ahead of print]

Educating about female genital mutilation.

Holmes V, Farrington R, Mulongo P

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is illegal in the UK but nevertheless practised in some immigrant communities. Effective educational approaches are required to inform policy and to direct resources, often in the voluntary sector. The opinions in this article arise from discussions with professionals and members of FGM-practising communities. We highlight the importance of sharing experiences and expertise across health and social care professionals as well as working in partnership with culturally sensitive Non-Governmental Organisations. Enlisting the support of men and religious leaders is crucial to breaking down barriers in male-dominated communities and dispelling myths about FGM being a ‘requirement’ of faith.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Health professionals worldwide lack knowledge on female genital mutilation

BMJ. 2015;351:h6693

Health professionals worldwide lack knowledge on female genital mutilation

Kmietowicz Z


More training and guidance on treating women and girls who have had female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C) are needed for health professionals around the world, a review has concluded.

Researchers from Sydney, Australia, conducted a systematic review to assess health professionals’ experience of FGM/C in their clinical setting, their knowledge of FGM/C types, complications of the practice, and their access to education and training.

They found 159 research papers, but the standard was generally poor. Only 18 studies met their inclusion criteria, and none met all eight quality criteria. …

This article can be accessed in this LINK


Midwifery training needs identified when caring for women with female genital mutilation

Evid Based Nurs. 2015 Aug 27. pii: ebnurs-2015-102080. doi: 10.1136/eb-2015-102080. [Epub ahead of print]

Midwifery training needs identified when caring for women with female genital mutilation.

Leye E

There is no abstract available for this article.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Female Genital Mutilation: What Health Educators Should Know

Journal of Health Education. 1999, 30(4):222-228

Female genital mutilation: what health educators should know

Ausherman JA, Welshimer KJ & Black JM


This article provides an overview of the issues surrounding the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM). FGM is a general term used to describe various forms of genital cutting that are performed on girls and women. There is a definitive need for health education professionals to gain awareness and develop an understanding of this practice. Increasingly, health educators will be called on to teach others about this practice. To be effective, health educators need to develop an understanding of the terminology, the procedure, the extent of the incidence and prevalence of the practice, worldwide prevention efforts, and the various roles that professional health educators can play. This information can be used as a basic guide for the development of curricula, lesson plans, or educational materials for use in schools, communities, work sites, and health care settings.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

School nurses take lead on FGM.

Nurs Stand. 2014 Jul 1;28(43):22-3. doi: 10.7748/ns.28.43.22.s27.

School nurses take lead on FGM.

Trueland J.


Female genital mutilation is now recognised as an important public health issue in the UK, requiring action from nurses and midwives. School nurses in particular are being enlisted to identify and support girls at risk of FGM, and help teachers have the confidence to intervene. Every nurse needs to know how to support women living with the consequences of FGM.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Female genital mutilation: classification and management.

Nurs Stand. 2007 Oct 24-30;22(7):43-9; quiz 50.

Female genital mutilation: classification and management.

Bikoo M.

Elizabeth Garrett Anderson and Obstetric Hospital, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London. maligaye.bikoo@uclh.nhs.uk


Female genital mutilation is a deeply rooted cultural tradition observed primarily in Africa and among certain communities in the Middle East and Asia. It has considerable health consequences. Women from the practising communities are increasingly seen within healthcare settings but few healthcare professionals are trained to treat their specific healthcare needs.

There is no link to view this article online.

Classrooms in London schools tackle genital mutilation

Web Dw.De. 23.11.2011FREE

Classrooms in London schools tackle genital mutilation

Schweiger L., Steffen S


…Although female genital mutilation (FGM) is most commonly performed in Africa, where some 30 countries have subjected approximately 92 million girls to this practice, it is also an issue in Western countries. Parents from immigrant communities in countries including Germany, France and the United Kingdom are taking their young daughters abroad to subject them to FGM. Anecdotal evidence also points to it taking place in large European centers like London…

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Female genital mutilation: the role of health professionals in prevention, assessment, and management

BMJ. 2012;344:e1361

Female genital mutilation: the role of health professionals in prevention, assessment, and management

Simpson J, Robinson K, Creighton SM, Hodes D

Summary Points

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a form of child abuse and is illegal in the UK. It is also a criminal offence to arrange (or try to arrange) FGM overseas for a UK national or permanent UK resident. FGM is prevalent in certain UK minority and ethnic communities and health professionals should be aware of its likelihood within their patient populations. Health professionals must identify the local services available for women seeking help and children at risk. Training is essential so that health professionals can raise the matter with women sensitively and advise families on the UK legal position. All pregnant women from practising communities must be asked about FGM at routine antenatal booking; systems should be in place for this information to feed back

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Reports focus on female genital mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan

The Lancet. 2010 Mar;375(9717):794

Reports focus on female genital mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan

Burki T


Campaigns against female genital mutilation have mainly targeted African nations, where most mutilations occur. Now two reports hope to highlight the issue further afield. Talha Burki reports.

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Africa but also occurs in Oman, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia; parts of Indonesia and Malaysia; and in specific immigrant communities in North America and Europe. Two new reports—one published by German relief organisation WADI on Feb 6, the other to be issued by Human Rights Watch (HRW) later this year—centre on an arena hitherto neglected by researchers and activists: Iraqi Kurdistan.

Kurdish northern Iraq is an autonomous region consisting of the three governorates of Dohuk, Arbil, and Suleymaniya, with a population of about 5·5 million, and several provinces in neighbouring governorates, one of which, Kirkuk, awaits the result of a referendum to determine whether it will become part of Kurdistan.

“Most girls in northern Iraq are likely to have undergone FGM”, concludes the WADI report, which surveyed more than 1400 women across the region. The average rate of FGM was 72·7%, but in some areas was virtually 100%….

This article can be accessed in this LINK.