Tag Archives: Educational status

Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.

Prevalence of and factors affecting female genital mutilation among schoolgirls in Eastern Sudan.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013 Mar;120(3):288-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2012.09.018. Epub 2012 Dec 7.

Prevalence of and factors affecting female genital mutilation among schoolgirls in Eastern Sudan.

Ali AA, Okud A, Mohammed AA, Abdelhadi MA.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Kassala University, Kassala, Sudan. abuzianab73@yahoo.com

There is no ABSTRACT available for this article

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Perception and practice of female genital cutting in a rural community in southern Nigeria.

Afr J Reprod Health. 2012 Dec;16(4):132-9.FREE

Perception and practice of female genital cutting in a rural community in southern Nigeria.

Johnson OE, Okon RD.

Department of Community Health, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria. drjohnsonoe@yahoo.com


This study was carried out to determine the awareness and practice of FGC in a rural community in southern Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out among Ayadehe women in Itu, LGA Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Information obtained was analysed using SPSS version 17. A total of 218 respondents participated in the study. Majority, 215 (98.6%) were aware of the practice of FGC. Type 2 FGC was the commonest type reported by 71.2% of respondents. Prevalence of FGC was 92.7%. A total of 69.8% were circumcised at 6-12 years. Health complications experienced included excruciating pains, (36.6%), severe bleeding, (15.8%), and painful urination, (26.7%). Up to 53.5% were circumcised by traditional birth attendants. The belief that FGM should be discontinued increased with educational level. The practice of FGC was high in this community. Increased female education, community involvement and legislation are needed to reduce this practice.

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Males’ preference for circumcised women in northern Ghana

Afr J Reprod Health. 2006 Aug;10(2):37-47.

Males’ preference for circumcised women in northern Ghana.

Sakeah E, Beke A, Doctor HV, Hodgson AV.

Navrongo Health Research Centre, P.O. Box 114, Navrongo, Upper East Region, Ghana. esakeah@yahoo.co.uk


Female genital mutilation (FGM) still remains one of the challenges facing women in many countries around the world. Efforts to eradicate the practice are on going but the results are still modest due to, among other things, ingrained cultural traditions that expose women to serious health consequences. In Africa where FGM is practiced in more than 28 countries, males have been found to perpetuate the practice. Using baseline data on FGM collected in 1998 by the Navrongo Health Research Centre in Ghana, we examined factors that influence males’ choice of marrying circumcised women. Results from regression analysis show that the illiterate and those who have been to primary school are more likely to prefer circumcised women than those with secondary and higher education. In addition, ethnicity and religion are also significant factors that influence males’ preference to marry circumcised women. A number of policy implications are discussed.

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Female genital cutting starts to decline among women in Oromia, Ethiopia.

Reprod Biomed Online. 2010 Jun;20(7):867-72. doi: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2010.01.009. Epub 2010 Feb 1.

Female genital cutting starts to decline among women in Oromia, Ethiopia.

Rahlenbeck S, Mekonnen W, Melkamu Y.

Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. rahlenbeck@hotmail.com


The study explored factors influencing attitudes towards the practice of female genital cutting (FGC) among women in Oromia region, Ethiopia. Representative data from 2221 women aged 15-49 years from the Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey in 2005 were evaluated. Overall, 88.4% of women had undergone FGC. Prevalence significantly decreased with birth date, ranging from 95.1% in women aged 45-49 years to 75.8% in those aged 15-19 years. Overall, 63.7% of women favoured the discontinuation of FGC, while 29.7% favoured its continuation. Education was strongly correlated with a stance against the practice: while only 54.6% of illiterate women were against it, this figure was 95.5% among women who had completed secondary school. While the reported prevalence was similar among Christian (87.8%) and Islamic women (89.1%), 56.3% of Islamic women favoured discontinuation compared with 70.5% of Christian women. The higher that women scored on empowerment indices, the more they opposed the practice. In logistic regression models, educational level (P=0.001), personal FGC experience (P=0.001), religious affiliation (P=0.02) and self-empowerment were factors (P=0.01 and P=0.004) significantly associated with favouring discontinuation. Future efforts encouraging an end to FGC must include the illiterate population in the Oromia region and focus on improving the status of women.

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Female genital mutilation and domestic violence among Egyptian women.

J Sex Marital Ther. 2001 Oct-Dec;27(5):593-8.

Female genital mutilation and domestic violence among Egyptian women.

Refaat A, Dandash KF, el Defrawi MH, Eyada M.

Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.


The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between female circumcision and domestic violence. Results showed that women who suffered from domestic violence and women who experienced genital circumcision shared many low socioeconomic and educational characteristics. Circumcised women were more likely to support continuation of female circumcision, to circumcise their daughters, and to accept the right of husbands to beat their wives.

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