Tag Archives: Egypt

Clitoral stones are a rare complication of female genital mutilation.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2016 Jul 31.doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2016.06.011. [Epub ahead of print]

Clitoral stones are a rare complication of female genital mutilation

Al-Hussaini TK

ABSTRACT

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is practiced widely in Egypt and is a deeply rooted tradition; although the government has banned the practice, FGM in Egypt dates back to the Pharaonic period, with adherence to the custom remaining widespread. FGM has been described as a direct assault on the clitoris and an indirect assault on female sexuality [1]. FGM is known to be widespread in Egypt, with 91% of all women aged 15–49 years having undergone some form of FGM [2]; in Upper Egypt, the prevalence is thought to be higher stil.

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Women’s position and attitudes towards female genital mutilation in Egypt: A secondary analysis of the Egypt demographic and health surveys, 1995-2014

BMC Public Health. 2015 Sep 10;15(1):874. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-2203-6. FREE

Women’s position and attitudes towards female genital mutilation in Egypt: A secondary analysis of the Egypt demographic and health surveys, 1995-2014.

Van Rossem R, Meekers D, Gage AJ

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is still widespread in Egyptian society. It is strongly entrenched in local tradition and culture and has a strong link to the position of women. To eradicate the practice a major attitudinal change is a required for which an improvement in the social position of women is a prerequisite. This study examines the relationship between Egyptian women’s social positions and their attitudes towards FGM, and investigates whether the spread of anti-FGM attitudes is related to the observed improvements in the position of women over time.

METHODS: Changes in attitudes towards FGM are tracked using data from the Egypt Demographic and Health Surveys from 1995 to 2014. Multilevel logistic regressions are used to estimate 1) the effects of indicators of a woman’s social position on her attitude towards FGM, and 2) whether these effects change over time.

RESULTS: Literate, better educated and employed women are more likely to oppose FGM. Initially growing opposition to FGM was related to the expansion of women’s education, but lately opposition to FGM also seems to have spread to other segments of Egyptian society.

CONCLUSIONS: The improvement of women’s social position has certainly contributed to the spread of anti-FGM attitudes in Egyptian society. Better educated and less traditional women were at the heart of this change, and formed the basis from where anti-FGM sentiment has spread over wider segments of Egyptian society.

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Awareness and predictors of female genital mutilation/cutting among young health advocates

FREEInt J Womens Health. 2015 Feb 20;7:259-69. doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S78664. eCollection 2015.

Awareness and predictors of female genital mutilation/cutting among young health advocates

Abolfotouh SM, Ebrahim AZ, Abolfotouh MA

ABSTRACT

The act of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is considered internationally as a violent act against girls and women and a violation of their human rights. This study sought to assess the awareness and predictors of FGM/C in young Egyptian health advocates. A cross-sectional study of 600 medical students from a total of 2,500 members of the International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations (IFMSA)-Egypt, across all Egyptian medical schools, was conducted using a previously validated online Google survey. The overall prevalence of circumcision was 14.7/100 female students, with a significantly higher prevalence in students from rural areas (25%) than in non-rural areas (10.8%, P=0.001), and in those residing in Upper (southern) Egypt (20.6%) than in Lower (northern) Egypt (8.7%, P=0.003). The students’ mean percentage score for knowledge about the negative health consequences of FGM/C was 53.50±29.07, reflecting a modest level of knowledge; only 30.5% had a good level of knowledge. The mean percentage score for the overall attitude toward discontinuation of the practice of FGM/C was 76.29±17.93, reflecting a neutral attitude; 58.7% had a favorable attitude/norms toward discontinuation of the practice. Of circumcised students, approximately one-half (46.8%) were unwilling to have their daughters circumcised, and 60% reported no harm from being circumcised. After controlling for confounders, a negative attitude toward FGM/C was significantly (P<0.001 in all cases) associated with male sex, residency in Upper Egypt, rural origin, previous circumcision, and the preclinical medical phase of education. The low level of knowledge among even future health professions in our study suggests that communication, rather than passive learning, is needed to convey the potentially negative consequences of FGM/C and to drive a change in attitude toward discontinuation of this harmful practice.

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Determinants of support for female genital cutting among ever-married women in Egypt

Global Public Health, 2008:3(4);383-398.

Determinants of support for female genital cutting among ever-married women in Egypt

Suzuki C, Meeker D

ABSTRACT

This study examines the effect of exposure to communication messages on support for female genital cutting (FGC) in Egypt. Data from the 2005 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey are analysed using logistic regression (n=19,106; ever-married women aged 15–49). The analysis reveals that high levels of exposure to FGC-related media messages are essential in reducing support for FGC. Women exposed to two or more FGC media messages are 1.6 times more likely than unexposed women to support discontinuing FGC. Moreover, women’s belief that men want the practice discontinued, and their belief that FGC can cause fatal complications, are both positively associated with women’s support for discontinuing FGC. By contrast, women’s belief that FGC is an important part of religion, and their belief that FGC prevents adultery, are negatively associated with women’s support for discontinuing FGC. Almost identical factors affect women’s intention to circumcise their daughters. High exposure to FGC-related messages, and women’s belief that men want the practice discontinued, are negatively associated with the outcome. Women’s belief that FGC is an important part of religion, and their belief that FGC prevents adultery, are positively associated with it. Women’s belief that a husband prefers a circumcised wife is not associated with women’s intention to circumcise their daughters after controlling for all other variables in the model. Given that high level of exposure to FGC-related messages is key in reducing support for FGC, communication campaigns should be continued and intensified. Campaigns should also aim to change men’s perception and support for the practice.

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Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Will It Continue?

J Sex Med. 2014 Aug 14. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12655. [Epub ahead of print]

Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Will It Continue?

Mohammed GF, Hassan MM, Eyada MM.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a prevalent, deeply rooted traditional practice in Egypt. AIMS: Specification of the motives behind the continuation of FGM/C in Egyptian community and evaluation of the sexual function in women with FGM/C.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study, involved 2,106 sexually active female participants with FGM/C. Full history-taking and general examination to evaluate the type of FGM/C were conducted. Sexual function was assessed by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Enumerate and specify the motivational factors and its percent among the participants. The correlation between FGM/C and FSFI domain scores was done with Pearson’s correlation.

RESULTS: Tradition, cleanliness, and virginity were the most common motives empowering the continuation of FGM/C (100%), followed by men’s wish, esthetic factors, marriage, and religion factors (45.2-100%). Type I FGM/C was the most common, followed by type II. There was only negative correlation between the type II FGM/C and sexual satisfaction. No statistically significant difference between type I and non-FGM/C was found.

CONCLUSIONS: FGM/C remains high. A variety of socio-cultural myths, religious misbelievers, and hygienic and esthetic concerns were behind the FGM/C. Overall, a large proportion of the participants supported the continuation of FGM/C in spite of adverse effect and sexual dysfunction associated with FGM/C.

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Exploration of pathways related to the decline in female circumcision in Egypt.

BMC Public Health. 2013 Oct 3;13(1):921. [Epub ahead of print]FREEy

Exploration of pathways related to the decline in female circumcision in Egypt.

Modrek S, Liu JX.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been a large decline in female genital circumcision (FGC) in Egypt in recent decades. Understanding how this change has occurred so rapidly has been an area of particular interest to policymakers and public health officials alike who seek to further discourage the practice elsewhere.

METHODS: We document the trends in this decline in the newest cohorts of young girls and explore the influences of three pathways—socioeconomic development, social media messages, and women’s empowerment—for explaining the observed trends. Using the 2005 and 2008 Egypt Demographic and Health Surveys, we estimate several logistic regression models to (1) examine individual and household determinants of circumcision, (2) assess the contributions of different pathways through which these changes may have occurred, and (3) assess the robustness of different pathways when unobserved community differences are accounted for.

RESULTS: Across all communities, socioeconomic status, social media messages, and women’s empowerment all have significant independent effects on the risk of circumcision. However, after accounting for unobserved differences across communities, only mother’s education and household wealth significantly predict circumcision outcomes. Additional analyses of maternal education suggest that increases in women’s education may be causally related to the reduction in FGC prevalence.

CONCLUSIONS: Women’s empowerment and social media appear to be more important in explaining differences across communities; within communities, socioeconomic status is a key driver of girls’ circumcision risk. Further investigation of community-level women’s educational attainment for mothers suggests that investments made in female education a generation ago may have had echo effects on girls’ FGC risk a generation later.

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Impact of the complete ban on female genital cutting on the attitude of educated women from Upper Egypt toward the practice

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013 Mar;120(3):275-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2012.10.010. Epub 2012 Dec 11.

Impact of the complete ban on female genital cutting on the attitude of educated women from Upper Egypt toward the practice.

Hassanin IM, Shaaban OM.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of female genital cutting (FGC) before and 5 years after the law completely banned the practice in Egypt, and evaluate the attitude of educated mothers of girls toward FGC in Upper Egypt.

METHODS: All women attending 2 outpatient clinics in Upper Egypt were approached from January 1 through November 30, 2011. A trained nurse interviewed those who had daughters, and factors influencing their attitude toward FGC were evaluated. The participants in a previous study done in the same locality acted a historical comparison group.

RESULTS: The percentage of women who had FGC performed on at least 1 daughter was significantly lower in 2011 than in 2006 (71.6% vs 77.8%, P=0.04). The main reason for performing FGC, given by 42.6% of the participants, was family pressure. The percentage of FGC procedures practiced by physicians was significantly lower in 2011 than it was in 2006 (34.6% vs 39.3%, P=0.04).

CONCLUSION: The decrease in prevalence of FGC after its complete ban was small after 5 years, with little change in attitude among educated families in Upper Egypt. In addition to the current law, a change in attitude will be needed to wipe out this custom.

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Egypt tightens ban on female genital mutilation after 12 year old girl dies.

BMJ. 2007 Jul 7;335(7609):15.FREE

Egypt tightens ban on female genital mutilation after 12 year old girl dies.

Meleigy M.

EXTRACT

Egypt has announced that it is imposing a complete ban on female genital mutilation. The ban was imposed last week by the Ministry of Health after a public outcry over the death of a 12 year old girl, Budour Ahmad Shaker, who died from an overdose of anaesthetic while being circumcised.

After the much publicised death of the girl, the Egyptian Center for Women’s Rights appealed to the government for a law that would criminalise the practice and that would “punish doctors who commit this crime, and close clinics and hospital that continue to practise it.” The doctor who had carried out the circumcision on the girl has been arrested, and the clinic where it took place has been closed down.

In Egypt 75% of female genital mutilation is carried out by doctors and nurses, and 25% are carried out by birth attendants, or …

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Women’s empowerment and the intention to continue the practice of female genital cutting in Egypt.

Arch Iran Med. 2009 Mar;12(2):154-60. FREE

Women’s empowerment and the intention to continue the practice of female genital cutting in Egypt.

Afifi M.

Department of Primary Health Care, MOH (HQ), P.O. Box 1853, Dubai, UAE. afifidr@yahoo.co.uk

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to (dis)prove the association of the level of women’s empowerment with their future intention to perpetuate female genital cutting for their daughters.

METHODS: In a national representative community-based sample of 14,393 currently-married women in Egypt, the level of empowerment, intention to continue the practice, and other socio- demographic variables were collected in the 2000 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. Secondary in-depth analysis was conducted on data downloaded from MEASURE Demographic Health Surveys (MEASURE DHS) website.

RESULTS: About 14% of the women intended to discontinue the practice. Twenty-six percent of the women were empowered in all household decisions. Levels of women’s empowerment adjusted for age, residence, education, interaction between empowerment and education, work status, and female genital cutting status of currently-married women were entered in six logistic regression models in a sequential way.

CONCLUSION: In the last model, those of high levels of empowerment and education were 8.06 times more likely not intending to perpetuate female genital cutting for their daughters than low- empowered low-educated women.

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The struggle for abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) in Egypt.

Glob Health Promot. 2009 Mar;16(1):57-60. doi: 10.1177/1757975908100752.

The struggle for abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) in Egypt.

Molleman G, Franse L.

Centre for Knowledge and Quality Management, Netherlands Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (NIGZ), Woerden, The Netherlands. gmolleman@nigz.nl

ABSTRACT

This commentary describes a visit to the Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting project in Cairo. FGM/C is a very serious problem in Egypt and other countries in the North of Africa. Among girls between the age of 15-17, 77% have been cut, with very serious health consequences. In Egypt, there is a comprehensive strategy led by very enthusiastic employees of the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood with support of UNICEF. At a national level a broad coalition is being built that tries to mobilise the legal, medical and media communities to overcome the practice of FGM/C and realising adequate laws that criminalise FGM/C.At a local level two community projects were started in 160 villages in Upper and Lower Egypt for raising community awareness and dialogue on FGM/C. That is the only way to create a growing social movement that can collectively abandon the practice of FGM/C.

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