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Women’s attitudes towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation in Egypt.

J Inj Violence Res. 2010 Jan;2(1):41-5. doi: 10.5249/jivr.v2i1.33.FREE

Women’s attitudes towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation in Egypt.

Dalal K, Lawoko S, Jansson B.

Linköpings Universitet, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Centre for Medical Technology Assessment and Division of Social Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Linköping, Sweden. koustuv.dalal@liu.se

BACKGROUND: To examine women’s attitude towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation (FGM) in association with their access to information, knowledge of health effects and cultural beliefs concerning FGM in Egypt.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 9159 women, using data from the household survey in Egypt by Demographic and Health survey 2003. A comprehensive questionnaire covering attitudes towards FGM, demographics, and access to information was used. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were applied to investigate how demographics, level of education, access to information, knowledge of health consequences and cultural beliefs influence women’s attitudes towards FGM.

RESULTS: Among the demographic variables, discontinuation of FGM was independently associated with urban residency and post-secondary education. Moreover, women who were informed by the media, and those who had attended community meetings, church, or mosque where FGM was discussed, as well as women who were aware of the negative health consequences of FGM, were more likely to support discontinuation of FGM. By contrast, women with positive cultural conceptions of FGM were less likely to favor its discontinuation.

CONCLUSIONS: Public education and information dissemination aiming to change current cultural notions favoring FGM practice – through community and religious leaders, and radio and television programs – may play an important role in modifying women’s attitudes towards FGM. These findings have some implications for intervention and policy. ‎

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Prevalence of female genital cutting in Upper Egypt: 6 years after enforcement of prohibition law

Reprod Biomed Online. 2008 16 (1): 27-31

Prevalence of female genital cutting in Upper Egypt: 6 years after enforcement of prohibition law

Hassanin I, Saleh R, Bedaiwy AA, Peterson RS Bedaiwy MA

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of female genital cutting (FGC) in Upper Egypt, after 6 years of putting prohibition law into action. A total number of 3730 girls between the ages of 10–14 years were recruited to participate in this study. They were mainly preparatory school students (three urban and three rural areas). Social workers interviewed them as to whether they had undergone circumcision within the last 6 years or not. Subsequently, a questionnaire was sent to parents of girls who were positive for circumcision as to the circumstances surrounding the procedure. The prohibition law of FGC seems not to have altered the prevalence of this procedure. The majority of girls (84.9%) had had circumcision within the last 6 years with high prevalence in rural areas (92.5%). Circumcision was done for a combination of reasons, according to parents, with high rates of non-medical personnel participation (64.15%). This study’s results indicate that the practice of FGC in Upper Egypt remains high despite enforcement of law. Extensive efforts are needed both to revise public awareness and to change attitudes regarding FGC.

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Prevalence and effects of violence against women in a rural community in Minia governorate, Egypt.

J Forensic Sci. 2011 Nov;56(6):1521-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2011.01886.x. Epub 2011 Aug 9.

Prevalence and effects of violence against women in a rural community in Minia governorate, Egypt.

Habib SR, Abdel Azim EK, Fawzy IA, Kamal NN, El Sherbini AM.

Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to investigate prevalence and the characteristics of domestic violence (DV) against women in a rural area in Minia governorate, Egypt, as well as its physical and psychological consequences. Seven hundred and seventy-two women were interviewed. Sociodemographic data were collected; the WHO questionnaire was used to identify the abuse; the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IIIR (SCID) to detect psychiatric disorders. Abused females constituted 57.4% of the total sample. There were significant relationships between DV and low education, low income, higher number of children, and husband’s education. Psychiatric disorders occurred in 18% of the sample. There were statistically significant relationships between psychological and physical abuse of women and the occurrence of psychiatric disorders. In conclusion, DV against women was related to various negative health outcomes, and it is recommended to be given its real importance in both Forensic Medicine Council and in psychiatric assessment.

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Egyptian ever-married women’s attitude toward discontinuation of female genital cutting.

Singapore Med J. 2010 Jan;51(1):15-20.

Egyptian ever-married women’s attitude toward discontinuation of female genital cutting.

Afifi M.

Department of Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health (Headquarters) Dubai, PO Box 1853, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. afifidr@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to examine Egyptian ever-married women’s beliefs and attitude toward the discontinuation of female genital cutting (FGC). We also examined the significant sources of information which the women with positive attitude were exposed to the year prior to the survey. METHODS: In a national representative community-based sample of 15,573 ever-married Egyptian women, the intention to continue the practice of FGC and other sociodemographical variables were collected from the 2000 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey data. A secondary in-depth analysis was conducted on the data in order to investigate the women’s attitude and its associated factors. RESULTS: Only 12.4 percent of the sample intended to discontinue the practice. The logistic regression models showed that women with a positive attitude to discontinue the practice believed that FGC was not an important part of religious traditions, that husbands did not prefer a cut wife, and that FGC reduced sexual desire. The most significant sources of information related to a positive attitude to discontinue the practice were community discussions, the mosques or churches and the newspapers. CONCLUSION: The aforementioned sources of information are related to the social and religious aspects of women in the Egyptian community. In order to change women’s attitude toward the discontinuation of this unhealthy practice, communication rather than passive learning is needed.

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Female genital mutilation and domestic violence among Egyptian women.

J Sex Marital Ther. 2001 Oct-Dec;27(5):593-8.

Female genital mutilation and domestic violence among Egyptian women.

Refaat A, Dandash KF, el Defrawi MH, Eyada M.

Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between female circumcision and domestic violence. Results showed that women who suffered from domestic violence and women who experienced genital circumcision shared many low socioeconomic and educational characteristics. Circumcised women were more likely to support continuation of female circumcision, to circumcise their daughters, and to accept the right of husbands to beat their wives.

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Female genital mutilation and its psychosexual impact.

J Sex Marital Ther. 2001 Oct-Dec;27(5):465-73.

Female genital mutilation and its psychosexual impact.

el-Defrawi MH, Lotfy G, Dandash KF, Refaat AH, Eyada M.

Psychiatry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

Two hundred and fifty women, randomly selected from the patients of Maternal and Childhood Centers in Ismailia, were examined gynecologically and interviewed to investigate their psychosexual activity. Results showed that the 80% who were circumcised, complained more significantly of dysmenorrhea (80.5%), vaginal dryness during intercourse (48.5%), lack of sexual desire (45%), less frequency of sexual desire per week (28%), less initiative during sex (11%), being less pleased by sex (49%), being less orgasmic (39%), and less frequency of orgasm (25%), and having difficulty reaching orgasm (60.5%) than the uncircumcised women. However, other psychosexual problems, such as loss of interest in foreplay and dyspareunia, did not reach statistical significance. The study suggests that circumcision has a negative impact on a woman’s psychosexual life.

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Female genital mutilation: a descriptive study.

J Sex Marital Ther. 2001 Oct-Dec;27(5):453-8.

Female genital mutilation: a descriptive study.

Dandash KF, Refaat AH, Eyada M.

Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismalia, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

Female circumcision is one of the tradition still practiced in Egypt. It is a custom related to morals. In order to study its practice in Sharkia governorate, mothers of 352 girls between the ages of 14 and 16 years were interviewed. Results showed that 97.2% of girls in rural areas were circumcised, compared with 81.9% of the girls in urban areas. Of the various factors studied, we found that mothers aged 40 years and older, those married before the age of 20 years, housewives, illiterate mothers, and those living in rural areas more significantly practiced daughter circumcision. Regression analysis revealed that the level of the fathers’ education and the area of residence were the most significant factors influencing this practice. Fathers’ illiteracy and rural residence were the factors most responsible for its continuation.

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Female circumcision among Egyptian women.

Womens Health. 1995 Winter;1(4):309-28.

Female circumcision among Egyptian women.

Ericksen KP.

Department of Psychology, University of California at Davis 95616, USA. kpericksen@ucdavis.edu

Although a remarkable degree of consensus has been reached among international agencies, policymakers, and women’s health advocates that the practice of female circumcision should be eliminated, such consensus is not necessarily shared by those who perform the operation or the families responsible for having girls excised. The surgical procedure is nested in a complex set of beliefs about identity, moral behavior, and the working of the female body. This article describes the dominant themes produced in 85 extensive interviews with mother and operators representing the broad spectrum of Egyptian society. The interviews detailed the operation itself, women’s emotional response to the operation, and the rationales put forth in support of the practice. Although institutional efforts to eliminate the practice will meet with resistance, significant demographic shifts already taking place are producing changes in family systems and the opportunity structure that coincide with the abandonment of excision in key sectors of the urban population.

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Effects of Female Genital Cutting on the Sexual Function of Egyptian Women. A Cross-Sectional Study

J Sex Med. 2012;9:2682-2692.

Effects of Female Genital Cutting on the Sexual Function of Egyptian Women. A Cross-Sectional Study

Anis TH, Gheit SA, Awad HH, Saied HS

ABSTRACT

Introduction.  The existing literature is conflicting regarding effects of female genital cutting (FGC) on sexual functions. Several studies from Africa over the past 20 years have challenged the negative effect of genital cutting on sexual function as defined by performance on the following domains: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and sexual pain. Other studies however indicated that sexual function of genitally cut women is adversely altered.

Aim.  The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of FGC on the female sexual function of Egyptian women.

Methods.  This is a cross-sectional study conducted between February and May 2011 at the outpatient clinic of Cairo University Hospitals. The study included 650 Egyptian females between 16 and 55 years of age (333 genitally cut women and 317 uncut women). Participants were requested to complete the Arabic Female Sexual Function Index (ArFSFI) and were then subjected to clinical examination where the cutting status was confirmed.

Main Outcome Measures.  The total score of the ArFSFI and its individual domains.

Results.  The mean age of cutting was 8.59 (±1.07) years. Of the cut participants, 84.98% showed signs of type I genital cutting, while 15.02% showed signs of type II genital cutting. After adjusting for age, residential area, and education level, uncut participants had significantly higher ArFSFI total score (23.99 ± 2.21) compared with cut participants (26.81 ± 2.26). The desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and satisfaction domains were significantly higher in the uncut participants (4.02 ± 0.78, 4.86 ± 0.72, 4.86 ± 0.75, 4.86 ± 0.68, 5.04 ± 0.71, respectively) compared with those of the cut participants (3.37 ± 0.89, 4.13 ± 0.71, 4.16 ± 0.84, 4.50 ± 0.79, 4.69 ± 0.92, respectively). No significant difference between the two groups was found regarding the sexual pain domain.

Conclusion.  In Egyptian women, FGC is associated with reduced scores of ArFSFI on all domain scores except the sexual pain domain.

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Female genital mutilation/cutting and issues of sexuality in Egypt.

Reprod Health Matters. 2010 Nov;18(36):181-90.

Female genital mutilation/cutting and issues of sexuality in Egypt.

Fahmy A, El-Mouelhy MT, Ragab AR.

UNFPA-Egypt, Cairo, Egypt.

Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), officially referred to as female circumcision and at community level as tahara (cleanliness), is still prevalent in Egypt. This study was designed to examine the role of female sexuality in women’s and men’s continued support for FGM/C, and their perceptions of its sexual consequences. The study was conducted in 2008-09 in two rural communities  in Upper Egypt and a large slum area in Cairo. Qualitative data were collected from 102 women and 99 men through focus group discussions and interviews. The clitoris was perceived to be important to, and a source of, sexual desire rather than sexual pleasure. FGM/C was intended to reduce women’s sexual appetite and increase women’s chastity, but was generally not believed to reduce women’s sexual pleasure. Men and women framed sexual pleasure differently, however. While men, especially younger men, considered sexual satisfaction as a cornerstone of marital happiness, women considered themselves sexually satisfied if there was marital harmony and their socio-economic situation was satisfactory. However, sexual problems, including lack of pleasure in sex and sexual dissatisfaction, for whatever reasons, were widespread. We conclude that political commitment is necessary to combat FGM/C and that legal measures must be combined with comprehensive sexuality education, including on misconceptions about FGM/C.

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