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Hepatitis C virus infection among paediatric patients attending University of Assiut Hospital, Egypt

Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2010 April; 16 (4)

Hepatitis C virus infection among paediatric patients attending University of Assiut Hospital, Egypt 

Kalil KA, Farghally HS, Hassanein KM, Abd-Elsayed AA, Hassanein FE

ABSTRACT

Few studies have evaluated the epidemiology and risk factors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children in Egypt. This study of 465 children attending Assiut University Hospital measured the rates of anti-HCV positivity by 3rd-generation ELISA test and of HCV-RNA positivity by PCR, with analysis of some relevant risk factors. The rate of HCV-RNA positivity among ELISA-positive cases (n = 121) was 72.2% overall: 100% in the subgroup with hepatitis, 70.8% in those with a history of multiple transfusions and 58.3% in those without hepatitis or multiple transfusions. History of blood transfusions, frequent injections, hospitalization or surgical procedures were significant risk factors for anti-HCV positivity by ELISA.

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Knowledge and attitudes about reproductive health and HIV/AIDS among family planning clients

Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 1996; 2 (3): 459-469.

Knowledge and attitudes about reproductive health and HIV/AIDS among family planning clients

Megeid AA, El Sheikh S, El Ginedy M, Mohammed M.

ABSTRACT

The knowledge of and attitudes towards reproductive health, and in particular STDs and AIDS, were assessed in 4000 women attending primary health care/family planning facilities in Alexandria, Egypt. In all, 66% did not know the significance of the term reproductive health and 50% considered female circumcision necessary. Of the 69% of women using contraceptives, 93% were using interuterine devices. The majority knew about AIDS but did not know that the use of condoms can prevent transmission of STDs, including HIV. A comprehensive programme should be initiated to increase public awareness of the issues of reproductive health.

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What do medical students in Alexandria know about female genital mutilation?

East Mediterr Health J. 2006;12 Suppl 2:S78-92.

What do medical students in Alexandria know about female genital mutilation?

Mostafa SR, El Zeiny NA, Tayel SE, Moubarak EI.

Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

We explored the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of 330 5th year medical students in Alexandria University towards female genital mutilation (FGM). The students’ basic knowledge about the practice of FGM was unsatisfactory. Students were unaware of the prevalence of FGM in Egypt and the practices and procedures of FGM. They were also poorly informed about the complications of FGM, and the ethical and legal aspects of FGM in the country. As a result, 52.0% of the students supported the continuation of the practice and 73.2% were in favour of its “medicalization” as a strategy for reducing the risks of FGM. Most students (86.9%) thought that the issue of FGM should be incorporated into the undergraduate medical curriculum.

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The mutilated orchid.

RCM Midwives. 2005 Mar;8(3):119.

The mutilated orchid.

Marjorie V.

Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospital, London.

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Female genital mutilation and social change.

Lancet. 2010 Nov 27;376(9755):1800.

Female genital mutilation and social change.

[No authors listed]

Erratum in Lancet. 2011 Jan 15;377(9761):208.

Changing social expectations is the key to ending the practice of female genital mutilation or cutting, according to a new report by UNICEF, The dynamics of social change: towards the abandonment of female genital mutilation/cutting in five African countries. Worldwide, up to 140 million girls and women are estimated to have undergone some form of genital mutilation—a recognised violation of human rights and a procedure complicated by severe haemorrhage, infection, and difficulties with delivery and sexual intercourse. Yet many parents, influenced by community expectations, believe that cutting secures social and economic security for their daughters. For them, the social harm of not cutting outweighs any physical, psychological, or even legal risk. It is “insufficient to simply provide individual families information of the harm of the practice” says author Francesca Moneti. While cutting is seen as the only possible social way to act, one of the first steps towards abandoning the practice is to promote the alternative, not cutting.
The report looked at how Kenya, Senegal, Sudan, Egypt, and Ethiopia have promoted the type of social change needed for communities to abandon the practice. Although the national prevalence of genital mutilation remains high in Egypt (91%) and Sudan (89%), as a result of community-driven change all five countries have reported a decrease in the percentage of women who think the practice should continue. Successful approaches include reinforcing the positive aspects of local culture rather than demonising traditional practices, using the media to elevate the status of being uncut, human-rights education linked to local values and aspirations, and the development of linkages with neighbouring countries and countries of migration.
Efforts to end female genital mutilation started decades ago. The report’s insights represent an important step towards ending this and other practices that are damaging to women’s health. Whilst respecting the subtle message that understanding and changing social expectations takes time, governments and donors must act quickly and decisively to support what is working to end female genital mutilation. Communities ready to adopt the social expectation not to cut can then do so.
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Prevalence of female genital cutting among Egyptian girls

Bull World Health Organ vol.86 no.4 Genebra Apr. 2008

Prevalence of female genital cutting among Egyptian girls

Mohammed A Tag-EldinI; Mohsen A GadallahI,1; Mahmoud N Al-TayebI; Mostafa Abdel-AtyII; Esmat MansourIII; Mona SallemI

IFaculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Abbassia 11566, Cairo, Egypt 
IIHealth Insurance Organization, Cairo, Egypt 
IIIMinistry of Health and Population, Cairo, Egypt

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Female genital cutting (FGC) is the collective name given to traditional practices that involve partial or total cutting away of the female external genitalia whether for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons. In Egypt, the result of the Demographic Health Survey in 2000 revealed that 97% of married women included in the survey experienced FGC. The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of FGC among schoolgirls in Egypt. 
METHODS: Multistage random technique was applied for site selection. First, Egypt was divided into five geographical areas; Greater Cairo, Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt, Sinai and Suez Canal Region. Second, from each governorate, two educational districts were selected randomly (except Luxor). In each of the selected districts, the schools were divided into primary, preparatory and secondary schools. In each education stage, the schools were divided into rural, urban, government and private. The total number of females interviewed was 38 816. 
FINDINGS: The prevalence of FGC among schoolgirls in Egypt was 50.3%. The prevalence of FGC was 46.2% in government urban schools, 9.2% in private urban schools and 61.7% in rural schools. Educational levels of mother and father were negatively associated with FGC (P < 0.001). The mean age of the time of FGC was 10.1 ± 2.3 years. 
CONCLUSION: FGC prevalence is lowering, yet more active education at the grass-roots level is needed to create change.

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Defective sexuality and female circumcision: the cause and possible management

J Obstet Gynaecol res. 2003 Feb; 29(1):12-9

Defective sexuality and female circumcision: the cause and possible management

Thabet SM, Thabet AS

Faculty of Medicine, cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. dr_saeedth@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

AIM:To verify the effect of circumcision on female sexuality and to define the need for clitorolabioplasty in these cases.

METHODS: Thirty uncircumcised controls, 30 minorly circumcised, 30 minorly circumcised mutilated, and 57 circumcised cases having clitoral cysts were selected on random bases at Kasr El Aini School of Medicine. Sexuality was assessed by a special questionnaire sheet prepared by the authors to fit the circumcised cases. Clitorolabioplasty and clitoral cyst excision were also done in cases of sexual defects.

RESULTS: Sexuality was not affected in minorly circumcised cases. However, sexuality was markedly affected in the mutilated cases. The scores for sex desire and arousal and for orgasm were especially affected in such cases. These defects were not detected in cases having clitoral cysts until late, when cysts enlarged. The role of clitorolabioplasty in restoration of sexuality was confirmed. The loss of certain clitoral and labial bulk, necessary for orienting the woman towards her genitalia and initiating her interest in their function, was responsible for the occurrence of such defects; this was able to be restored by surgery.

CONCLUSION: Counseling parents about these sexual defects and asserting the need for correcting the mutilation, which resulted from these circumcisions, are effective steps in banning such procedures.

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Reality of the G-spot and its relation to female circumcision and vaginal surgery.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2009 Oct; 35 (5):967-73

Reality of the G-Spot and its relation to female circumcision and vaginal surgery.

Thabet SM

Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, cairo, Egypt. dr_saeedth@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

AIM:

To clarify the reality of the G-spot anatomically, functionally and histologically, and to determine the possible effect of female circumcision and anterior vaginal wall surgery on the integrity and function of the G-spot.

METHODS:

A controlled descriptive and comparative cohort prospective study was conducted at Kasr El Aini School of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, of 50 uncircumcised and 125 circumcised women with small to moderate anterior vaginal wall descent. Preoperative sexual examination was performed to map the site of the G-spot and other anatomical landmarks on the anterior vaginal wall and to verify the associated circumcision state. Pre- and postoperative sexual assessment and histological examination of different mapped sites in the anterior vagina were also conducted.

RESULTS:

Histological findings, results of the anatomical and sexual mapping of the anterior vaginal wall and sexual scores were recorded. The G-spot was proved functionally in 144 (82.3%) of women and anatomically in 95 (65.9%). The latter appeared as two small flaccid balloon-like masses on either side of the lower third of the urethra and were named ‘the sexual bodies of the G-spot’. These bodies were significantly detected in all histo-positive cases in the circumcised women and in the uncircumcised women who had small or average clitorises. The G-spot was also proved histologically in 47.4% of all cases and was formed of epithelial, glandular and erectile tissue. Sex scores were significantly higher in the histo-positive cases with sexual bodies but significantly dropped after anterior vaginal wall surgery. In contrast, female circumcision rarely alters the scores.

CONCLUSION

The G-spot is functional reality in 82.3% of women, an anatomical reality in 54.3% and a histological reality in 47.4%. Anterior vaginal wall surgery usually affects the G-spot and female sexuality, but female circumcision rarely affects them.

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