Tag Archives: Emigrants and Immigrants

People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.

Reshaping the global health agenda: female genital cutting.

FREEMed Educ Online. 2016 Jan;21(1):31023. doi: 10.3402/meo.v21.31023.

Reshaping the global health agenda: female genital cutting.

Al-Saadi N, Khan H, Auckburally S, Al-Saadi A, Khan T.

EXTRACT 

Female genital cutting (FGC) is described by the World Health Organization as ‘all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons’. Its practice is common in at least 29 countries across Africa and the Middle East– currently affecting 125 million girls and women worldwide. Due to globalization, specifically increasing trends in migration, instances of FGC are increasingly common in the developed world. For example, 137,000 girls residing in the UK in 2011 were found to have undergone FGC. Despite this, the increasing trend of FGC in the developed world has not been uniformly met with suitable mechanisms to support these patients…

This article is available in this LINK

Knowledge and attitudes toward female genital cutting among West African male immigrants in New York City.

Health Care Women Int. 2017 May;38(5):463-477. doi: 10.1080/07399332.2017.1294593. Epub 2017 Feb 13.

Knowledge and attitudes toward female genital cutting among West African male immigrants in New York City. 

Akinsulure-Smith AM, Chu T.

ABSTRACT

In this project, we explored knowledge and attitudes toward female genital cutting (FGC) in a survey of 107 West African immigrants, including 36 men. Men in this study were as knowledgeable about the health consequences of FGC as women, though with a less nuanced understanding. They also rejected the practice at rates comparable to women. Despite this knowledge and rejection of FGC, most men did not express a personal preference for women with or without FGC in intimate relationships. Future research and interventions must explore men’s opposition to FGC and emphasize the impact of FGC on their partners’ gynecological and reproductive health.

This article is available in this LINK

‘Female genital mutilation’ in Europe: Public discourse versus empirical evidence

International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, Available online 2 May 2017.

‘Female genital mutilation’ in Europe: Public discourse versus empirical evidence

Johnsdotter SMestre i Mestre RM 

HIGHLIGHTS

• There is a discrepancy between public discourse and empirical evidence regarding ‘female genital mutilation’ in Europe.

• Framing FGM as a widespread social problem in Europe creates myths about activities among immigrant communities.

• An analysis of court cases in Europe shows that the typical European case is FGM performed in Africa.

• Public discourse regarding FGM needs to be challenged in multicultural democracies under the rule of law.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Cultural change after migration: Circumcision of girls in Western migrant communities

Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 2016;(32):15-25

Cultural change after migration: Circumcision of girls in Western migrant communities

Johnsdotter S, Essén B

ABSTRACT

This paper reviews the current knowledge on cultural change after migration in the practice of female circumcision, also named genital cutting or mutilation. Explorative studies show trends of radical change of this practice, especially the most extensive form of its kind (type III or the ‘Pharaonic’ type). The widespread interpretation that Islam would require circumcision of girls is questioned when, for example, Somalis meet other Muslim migrants, such as Arab Muslims, who do not circumcise their daughters. The few criminal court cases for circumcision of girls that have taken place in Western countries corroborate the conclusion that substantial change in the practice has occurred among migrants. In this literature review, an absence of reports is identified from healthcare providers who have witnessed circumcision after migration. Concurrently, a substantial knowledge exists on how to take care of already circumcised women and girls, and there is a system of recommendations in place regarding best practices for prevention. There is a great potential for healthcare providers to encourage this development towards general abandonment of circumcision of girls. The challenge for the future is how to incorporate culturally sensitive efforts of prevention on the one hand, and the examination of suspicious cases of illegal circumcision on the other. We recommend using – in a cautious way – the existing routines for identifying child abuse in general. Experiences from African contexts show that failure to generate significant change of the harmful practices/tradition may be due to the lack of multidisciplinary collaboration in different sectors of the society. In Western societies, the tendency toward abandonment of the practice could be reinforced by professionals who work toward better inclusion of men and women originally from countries where circumcision is practised.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

[Genital mutilation of women. A new challenge for the health service]. [Article in Norwegian]

Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1993 Sep 10;113(21):2704-7.
[Genital mutilation of women. A new challenge for the health service]. [Article in Norwegian]
Sundby J, Austveg B
ABSTRACT
Female circumcision, or genital mutilation is practised around the world. Because of war, conflicts and poverty, many women from cultures involving this practice now enter European communities. Some of them demand circumcision for their children. Genital mutilation of women has serious health effects, and in our societies there is a strong demand for its eradication. The cultural reasons for genital mutilation are varied, but it is not a compulsory part of the Islamic faith. Health workers in Norway may lack knowledge on how to handle these women when they meet them in their daily work. Sometimes unnecessary interventions are performed, sometimes ignorance may cause traumatic experiences for both patient and doctor. This article describes some of the social and cultural background for continued exposure to female mutilation, the health effects and some suggestions for interventions.
There is no LINK to see this article online

Frequency-Dependent Social Transmission and the Interethnic Transfer of Female Genital Modification in the African Diaspora and Indigenous Populations of Colombia

Hum Nat. 2015 Oct 15. [Epub ahead of print]

Frequency-Dependent Social Transmission and the Interethnic Transfer of Female Genital Modification in the African Diaspora and Indigenous Populations of Colombia

Ross CT, Campiño PJ, Winterhalder B

ABSTRACT

We present a quantitative account based on ethnographic and documentary research of the prevalence of female genital modification (FGMo) in the African diaspora and indigenous populations of Colombia. We use these data to test hypotheses concerning the cultural evolutionary drivers of costly trait persistence, attenuation, and intergroup transmission. The uptake of FGMo by indigenous populations in Colombia is consistent with frequency-dependent hypotheses for the social transmission of the FGMo trait from the African diaspora population in the period following the era of slavery in Colombia. The prevalence and severity of practices related to FGMo decline with level of sociocultural integration into mainstream Colombian culture. Our results provide empirical support for the cultural evolutionary models proposed by Ross et al. (2015) to describe the transmission dynamics of FGMo and other costly traits. Analysis of costly trait dynamics contributes knowledge useful to applied anthropology and may be of interest in policy design and human rights monitoring in Colombia and elsewhere.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

“A Somali girl is Muslim and does not have premarital sex. Is vaccination really necessary?” A qualitative study into the perceptions of Somali women in the Netherlands about the prevention of cervical cancer

Int J Equity Health. 2015 Aug 21;14(1):68. doi: 10.1186/s12939-015-0198-3. FREE

“A Somali girl is Muslim and does not have premarital sex. Is vaccination really necessary?” A qualitative study into the perceptions of Somali women in the Netherlands about the prevention of cervical cancer.

Salad J, Verdonk P, de Boer F, Abma TA

BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION: Participation in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and Papanicolaou Screening (Pap smears) is low among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands and hardly any information is available about the cervical cancer prevention methods of Somali women living in the diaspora. This qualitative study, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) and an intersectionality-based framework, explores the perceptions of Somali women living in the Netherlands regarding measures to prevent cervical cancer.

METHODS: Semi-structured interviews have been conducted with young Somali women aged 17-21 years (n = 14) and Somali mothers aged 30-46 years (n = 6). Two natural group discussions have been conducted with 12 and 14 Somali mothers aged 23-66 years. The collected data has been analyzed thematically for content.

RESULTS: In this study, we have identified perceived barriers to the use of preventive measures across three major themes: (1) Somali women and preventive healthcare; (2) Language, knowledge, and negotiating decisions; and (3) Sexual standards, culture, and religion. Many issues have been identified across these themes, e.g., distrust of the Dutch health care system or being embarrassed to get Pap smears due to Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and having a Dutch, male practitioner; or a perceived low susceptibility to HPV and cancer because of the religious norms that prohibit sex before marriage.

CONCLUSIONS: Current measures in the Netherlands to prevent women from developing cervical cancer hardly reach Somali women because these women perceive these kinds of preventative measures as not personally relevant. Dutch education strategies about cervical cancer deviate from ways of exchanging information within the Somali community. Teachers can provide culturally sensitive information to young Somali women in schools. For Somali mothers, oral education (e.g., poetry or theater) about the Dutch health care system and men’s roles in HPV transmission may be useful. An intersectional approach, grounded in the HBM, is recommended to promote equal access to preventive health care for Somali women.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Zambian Women in South Africa: Insights Into Health Experiences of Labia Elongation

Journal of Sex Research (iFirst). 10.1080/00224499.2014.1003027LME

Zambian Women in South Africa: Insights Into Health Experiences of Labia Elongation

G Martinez Perez, M Mubanga, C Tomás Aznar, B Bagnol

ABSTRACT

Labia minora elongation consists in the manual stretching of the inner lips of the external genitalia. This practice is documented in east and southern Africa. The experiences of African women in the diaspora practicing elongation are not thoroughly understood. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the health harms and benefits associated with this practice of Zambian women who have migrated to Cape Town, South Africa. Twenty women and seventeen men participated in this study. Between December 2013 and May 2014, in-depth interviews and natural group discussions were conducted with the participants. The focus of this article is to report on the emic of the women related to notions of health, hygiene, and well-being. Labial elongation is perceived as a practice involving minor, short-term adverse effects that can be prevented by following some basic hygiene. Overall, personal and social value is placed on this practice because of its reported benefits for the sexual health of men and women, and for women’s femininity and self-image. Further research is necessary on how female genital modifications influence Zambians’ sexual preferences to inform the development of culturally appropriate health promotion interventions.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Supporting the Abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation in the Context of Migration

IOM International Organization for Migration.

Supporting the Abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation in the Context of Migration

EXTRACT

…IOM became increasingly concerned and aware of the practice of FGM when the numbers of African women refugees requiring health assessments for resettlement began to rise.10 The organization therefore started to address the issue within the framework of its integration activities. Through pre-departure cultural orientation courses, IOM advocates against FGM among groups preparing to resettle. This is where migrants first learn that the practice is banned in Europe and Northern America.

The organization has also now started to implement specific projects on FGM. Several IOM missions are already undertaking activities to support a complete abandonment of FGM in migrant communities in Europe, in particular Austria, Italy, Portugal, and Switzerland. Other IOM missions, such as Finland, carry out activities related to the prevention of FGM within the framework of broader projects, for example mainstreaming migrants’ health rights…

This Information Sheet can be accessed in this LINK

Female genital mutilation: The abuse has to stop

Midwifery, 2014, 30, 277–278. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2014.02.001

Female genital mutilation: The abuse has to stop

Bick D

ABSTRACT

Female genital mutilation (FGM) involves the partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or injury of the genitalia with no medical indication or resulting health benefit (World Health Organisation, 2008). It is a custom prevalent in sub-Saharan countries of Africa, with some countries including Egypt, the Sudan and Somalia estimated to have a FGM prevalence of around 90% (United Nations Children׳s Fund, 2013). More midwives and other health professionals in the UK and elsewhere are providing care and support for women who have sustained FGM as a consequence of increased migration from countries where FGM is practiced.

This article can be accessed in this LINK