Tag Archives: Empowerment

Entry term of MeSH Power: The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings–administrative, social, academic, etc.

Perception and attitude of pregnant women in a rural community north-west Nigeria to female genital mutilation

Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2014 Sep 21. [Epub ahead of print]

Perception and attitude of pregnant women in a rural community north-west Nigeria to female genital mutilation.

Ashimi AO, Amole TG.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nigeria has the highest absolute number of residents who have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM) and most are carried out during infancy; however most reports on FGM are from urban based facilities hence we sought to know the perception and attitude of pregnant women residing in a rural community in northern Nigeria to FGM.

METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional study utilized a pretested structured interviewer administered questionnaire to assess the types of FGM known, reasons for performing it and willingness to support or perform FGM among 323 pregnant women attending antenatal care in two different health facilities.

RESULTS: Of the 323 respondents, 256 (79.3 %) were aware of the practice and the common varieties of FGM known to them were Gishiri cut in 137 (53.5 %) and Angurya cut 113 (44.1). The notable reasons for carrying out FGM in the community were tradition 88 (34.4 %), to ease difficulty in childbirth 69 (26.9 %) and better marriage prospect in 55 (21.5 %). Of the respondents that were aware of FGM; 100 (39.1 %) have experienced it and 55 (21.5 %) of those aware of it would subject their daughters to the procedure. There was statistically significant association between willingness to mutilate daughters by the respondents type of education (p = 0.014) and the type of facility they were receiving antenatal care (p = 0.001).

CONCLUSION: FGM is prevalent in this community with Gishiri cut being the commonest variety. It is often associated with difficult childbirth and many women would subject their daughters to this practice. Female education and empowerment is crucial to discontinuation of this practice.

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Genital mutilation as an expression of power structures: ending FGM through education, empowerment of women and removal of taboos.

Afr J Reprod Health. 2006 Aug;10(2):13-7.

Genital mutilation as an expression of power structures: ending FGM through education, empowerment of women and removal of taboos.

Finke E.

There is no ABSTRACT available for this article.

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BENIN-TOGO: Can microcredit turn FGM/C cutters to new trades?

IRIN Africa News. A service of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 26 Dec 2008.FREE

BENIN-TOGO: Can microcredit turn FGM/C cutters to new trades?

EXTRACT

… TCHAMBA, 26 December 2008 (IRIN) – For years, the Togolese government and its NGO partners have been trying to convince women who perform female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) to trade in their knives for microcredit loans and agricultural equipment.

Despite a 10-year-old law in Togo that criminalises FGM/C some ethnic groups in Togo still report clandestine cuttings.

While the number of women reporting having undergone FGM/C in Togo has decreased by half since 1996 to seven percent of the population in 2008, according to a recent UN-funded government study, it is not clear what role income-generating activities have had in this drop…

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E-solidarity, a means of fighting against FGM (Female Genital Mutilation)

Education and the Knowledge Society. IFIP International Federation for Information Processing. 2005, 161: 231-236.

E-solidarity, a means of fighting against FGM (Female Genital Mutilation)

Corsini-Karagouni A

ABSTRACT

This project aims to contribute to the eradication of the practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) throughout the Maasailand in Kenya in agreement with the World Health Organisation (WHO) policy by large-scale distribution of information to the remote Maasai villages, by creation of awareness, by proposing alternative rituals, by improvement of the social (and economic) status of women and by encouragement of Maasai families to send female children to school. e-Society means will be used in the understanding that these are not in opposition to preserving tradition and ethnic identity

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News: Women’s groups in Kenya win small victory against female circumcision

Lancet. 2001 feb;357(9253):371

News: Women’s groups in Kenya win small victory against female circumcision

Baleta A

Preview

The Kenyan Family Planning Association (FPA) has confirmed newspaper reports that the ninie young girls who were admitted to hospital in Western Kenya 2-weeks ago with profuse bleeding, were admitted because of botched circumcisions. The FPA say that the incident highlighted the difficulty in eradicating this deeply entrenched custom.

Only last month, two Kenyan girls from a farming region northwest of Nairobi won a court order to restrain their father from having them forcibley circumcised. The case represents the first time a Kenyan court has ruled against the forced circumcision of girls However, the Kenyan Federation of Women’s Lawyers say a new law is needed to criminalize female circumcision because the case was won not on the basis of law, but because the magistrate had exercised his discretion…

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Female genital mutilation in Egypt

Lancet. 2007 June;369(9576):1858

Female genital mutilation in Egypt

Afifi M

Preview

I would like to add a few comments to the World Report by Wairagala Wakabi (March 31, p 1069).1 Research from Egypt has shown that highly empowered women were eight times less likely to intend female genital mutilation (FGM) for their daughters than those less empowered.2 And although the Naserian Women Group’s experience in income-generating projects is strong evidence of the link between the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG-1) of poverty reduction and MDG-3 of women’s empowerment, it is not enough…

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Female genital mutilation: have we made progress?

International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2003 Sept;82(3):251-261

Female genital mutilation: have we made progress?

Toubia NF, Sharief EH

RAINBO (Research, Action and Information Network for Bodily Integrity of Women), London, UK

ABSTRACT

Interest curtailing the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) has increased in the past 20 years. Although the political and legal environment towards the practice is more hostile, this awareness has yet to translate itself to measurable changes in prevalence. At the local level activities are shifting from a clinical, health risk, model to an understanding of the phenomenon in its social context. Under patriarchal structures of social control of sexuality and fertility, women and girls are the primary social group to suffer from as well as to perpetuate the practice of FGM. With appropriate investments in psychological and economic empowerment, women are also the most likely group to resist the practice.

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The impact of female genital cutting on health of newly married women

International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2007 June;97(3):238-244

The impact of female genital cutting on health of newly married women.

Elnashar A, Abdelhady R

ABSTRACT

Objective To detect the rate of female genital cutting among a sample of newly married women in Benha city, and make a comparison between circumcised and non-circumcised women regarding long-term health problems.

Methods Randomly selected (264) newly married women were the subjects of this work.

Results Circumcised group constitutes 75.8% of the sample. All non-circumcised women were living in an urban area. Dysmenorrhea was more common among circumcised rather than non-circumcised, with statistically significant difference (P<0.01). Marital problems (dyspareunia, loss of libido, failure of orgasm and husband’s unsatisfaction) had statistically different levels of significance among circumcised women. Obstetric problems such as tears, episiotomy and consequently distressed babies were more events among circumcised mothers with statistical significance. Circumcised females had significant mental problems such as somatization, anxiety and phobia (P<0.001).

Conclusion Female genital cutting remains a widely practiced custom in our society. Grave complications of circumcision may last throughout women’s life particularly the time of consummation of marriage and the time of childbirth.

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Growing rejection of female genital cutting among women of reproductive age in Amhara, Ethiopia

Cult Health Sex. 2009;11(4):443-452

Growing rejection of female genital cutting among women of reproductive age in Amhara, Ethiopia

Rahlenbeck SI, Mekonnen W.

a Consultant in Public Health, Berlin, Germany b School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Addis Abeba University, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia

ABSTRACT

Data on female genital cutting are presented from 1942 women aged 15–49 years in Amhara region, Ethiopia, 2005. Reportedly 69% (1333/1942) had undergone the procedure. Rates showed a secular decline, decreasing from 77% in women aged 45–49 years old to 59% in those age 15–24 years. Of women with daughters, 64% had at least one circumcised daughter. Again, prevalence declined from 78% in daughters of mothers aged 45–49 years to 45% in those aged 15–24 years. In logistic regression, controlling for maternal FGC status, age and religion, maternal education was a strong predictor of having a circumcised daughter. Fifty‐four percent of respondents disapproved of the continuation of FGC. In logistic regression controlling for covariates, education and self‐empowerment were factors associated with rejecting FGC. Women who had ever attended a school had a 4‐fold increase in the odds of disapproving the practice than those who never did and respondents who scored high on empowerment indices had a 1.5‐fold increase in the odds to favour discontinuation compared to women scoring low. Future efforts to eliminate this harmful practice should be particularly directed to illiterate populations in rural areas. Efforts strengthening women’s empowerment will accelerate the progress of these programmes.

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