Archives Blog Original research

Female genital mutilation among antenatal care and contraceptive advice attendees in Sweden.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87(7):716-22.

Female genital mutilation among antenatal care and contraceptive advice attendees in Sweden.

Litorp H, Franck M, Almroth L.

Division of International Health/IHCAR, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

OBJECTIVE: To explore knowledge of, attitudes toward and practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) among women originally from countries where FGM is customary attending antenatal care and contraceptive advice in Sweden. METHODS: Women in reproductive age living in Sweden who originate from countries where FGM is practiced coming for antenatal care or contraceptive advice at two maternity welfare centers in Stockholm were asked to participate. Interview administered questionnaires and gynecological examination were used for data collection. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Out of 49 women asked, 40 women agreed to participate, of whom 37 had undergone FGM. Most FGM operations had been performed by doctors or midwives. Half of the Muslim women said FGM was allowed by their religion. All women reporting to have undergone ‘sunna’, an allegedly mild form, had extensive damage to their genitals. At gynecological examination three cases of reinfibulation were detected, of which two had been performed after delivery in Sweden. Twenty-nine women had daughters and three had let their daughters undergo FGM, all of them before settling in Sweden. Problems related to delivery and sexual intercourse were the most commonly mentioned complications of FGM. CONCLUSIONS: The reliability of the self-reported form of FGM is low, which may have implications for research, interventions and health care. Although many women express negative attitudes toward FGM and know about serious complications, the religious justifications, the practice of FGM on daughters, reinfibulation on adults and medicalization of the practice indicate attitudes that favor of the continued practice of FGM.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Archives Blog Original research

Women’s sexual health and contraceptive needs after a severe obstetric complication (“near-miss”): a cohort study in Burkina Faso

Reproductive Health 2010, 7:22

Women’s sexual health and contraceptive needs after a severe obstetric complication (“near-miss”): a cohort study in Burkina Faso

Ganaba R, Marshall T, Sombié I, Baggaley RF, Ouédraogo TW, Filippi V.

Corresponding author: Rasmané Ganaba



Little is known about the reproductive health of women who survive obstetric complications in poor countries. Our aim was to determine how severe obstetric complications in Burkina Faso affect reproductive events in the first year postpartum.


Data were collected from a prospective cohort of women who either experienced life threatening (near-miss) pregnancy-related complications or an uncomplicated childbirth, followed from the end of pregnancy to one year postpartum or post-abortum. Documented outcomes include menses resumption, sexual activity resumption, dyspareunia, uptake of contraceptives, unmet needs for contraception and women’s reproductive intentions.

Participants were recruited in seven hospitals between December 2004 and March 2005 in six towns in Burkina Faso.


Reproductive events were associated with pregnancy outcome. The frequency of contraceptive use was low in all groups and the method used varied according to the presence or not of a live baby. The proportion with unmet need for contraception was high and varied according to the time since end of pregnancy. Desire for another pregnancy was highest among near-miss women with perinatal death or natural abortion. Women in the near-miss group with induced abortion, perinatal death and natural abortion had significantly higher odds of subsequent pregnancy. Unintended pregnancies were observed mainly in women in the near-miss group with live birth and the uncomplicated delivery group.


Considering the potential deleterious impact (on health and socio-economic life) of new pregnancies in near-miss women, it is important to ensure family planning coverage includes those who survive a severe complication.

The open access article can be found in this LINK