Tag Archives: Female genital mutilation Type IV*

Scraping, labia elongation, cuttings, tattooing, piercing…

Punishment of Minor Female Genital Ritual Procedures: Is the Perfect the Enemy of the Good?

Dev World Bioeth. 2017;17(2):134–140.

Punishment of Minor Female Genital Ritual Procedures: Is the Perfect the Enemy of the Good?

Jacobs AJ, Arora KS

ABSTRACT

Female genital alteration (FGA) is any cutting, removal or destruction of any part of the external female genitalia. Various FGA practices are common throughout the world. While most frequent in Africa and Asia, transglobal migration has brought ritual FGA to Western nations. All forms of FGA are generally considered undesirable for medical and ethical reasons when performed on minors. One ritual FGA procedure is the vulvar nick (VN). This is a small laceration to the vulva that does not cause morphological changes. Besides being performed as a primary ritual procedure it has been proposed as a substitute for more extensive forms of FGA. Measures advocated or taken to reduce the burden of FGA can be punitive or non-punitive. Even if it is unethical to perform VN, we argue that it also is unethical to attempt to suppress it through punishment. First, punishment of VN is likely to cause more harm than good overall, even to those ostensibly being protected. Second, punishment is likely to exceed legitimate retributive ends. We do not argue in favor of performing VN. Rather, we argue that non-punitive strategies such as education and harm reduction should be employed.

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[G-spot does not exist: G-spot amplification (i.e. G-spot Augmentation, G-Spotplasty) is a female genital mutilation type IV.] [Article in French]

Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2014 Sep 22. pii: S0294-1260(14)00110-1. doi: 10.1016/j.anplas.2014.07.005. [Epub ahead of print]

[G-spot does not exist: G-spot amplification (i.e. G-spot Augmentation, G-Spotplasty) is a female genital mutilation type IV.] [Article in French]

Puppo V.

There is no ABSTRACT available for this article.

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The Practice of Puxa-Puxa among Mozambican Women: A Systematic Inventory of Motives.

J Sex Res. 2013 Aug 7. [Epub ahead of print] LME

The Practice of Puxa-Puxa among Mozambican Women: A Systematic Inventory of Motives.

Vera Cruz G, Mullet E.

Department of Psychology, Eduardo Mondlane University.

ABSTRACT

Puxa-puxa is the elongation of the labia minora of the genital organs. It is one of the most widespread genital practices among women in Mozambique, and the practice seems to be specific to this country. The motives underlying this practice and its abandonment were examined in a theory-driven way. A total of 616 women currently living in the provinces of Maputo, Zambezia, and Nampula, aged 18 to 62, were presented with one of two questionnaires that contained items about possible motives for practicing puxa-puxa or possible motives for not practicing it. Seven separable motives for practicing puxa-puxa were found, and the most highly rated were “Having a satisfying sexual life”; “Satisfying my sexual partner”; and “Gaining self-control.” Five separable motives for not practicing puxa-puxa were found, and the most highly rated were “Disliking a painful practice”; “Affirming one’s value as a person”; and “Avoiding contamination.” The main findings of the study are that the practice of puxa-puxa is associated with deep psychological motives common to most women in most cultures, namely having a satisfying sexual life with a reliable partner, creating the conditions for having children, and being able to care for them. The abandonment of this practice is largely the result of personal decisions, which are not taken under constraint and which are not exclusively taken from fear of illness.

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Psycholinguistic approaches to ritual labia minora elongation among the Baganda women of Uganda

Bodily Integrity and the Politics of Circumcision. 2006, pp 57-64LME

Psycholinguistic approaches to ritual labia minora elongation among the Baganda women of Uganda 

Villa E., Grassivaro Gallo P

ABSTRACT

Ritual elongation of the labia minora is a particular expansive modification of the external genitalia exercised for cultural motives (FGM type 4 – WHO 1996). The practice is common among the Baganda women of Uganda, where a variety of terms describe the rite.

Psycholinguistic analysis was conducted both in present day Africa, where elongation of the labia minora results from ritual manipulation, and through the bibliographical accounts of western authors (anthropologists and doctors) from the 1950s/60s.

A semantic polarization results in the linguistic expressions. In Africa, the positive connotation of terms used to describe the rite indicates its substantial valorisation. The vocabulary used by western authors, however, includes reference to aspects of rural Europe suggestive of poverty and ignorance (“apron”), or symbolic ridicule of the manipulated feature, equating it to the ear of a Coker Spaniel (Spaniel ear nymphae).

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Labial Elongation in the Shona

The Central Africa Journal of Medicine. July 1969 15 (7):165-166FREELME

Labial Elongation in the Shona

Williams J

EXTRACT

It is a common medical observation that most Shona women have elongated labia minora. Upon external vaginal examination these usually pre~ent as two contiguous bundles of gathered, shrIvelled, loose skin tissue. By including a labial measurement with routine antenatal pro- cedures, the extent of this enlargement was estimated in a series of rural Shona patients…

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A relationship between female genital piercings and genital mutilation?

BJOG. 2012 June; 119(7): 895-896.

A relationship between female genital piercings and genital mutilation?

Nelius T, Armstrong ML, Angel E, Hogan L, Young C, Rinard K

ABSTRACT

No abstract is available for this article.

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Intravaginal practices, bacterial vaginosis, and women’s susceptibility to HIV infection: epidemiological evidence and biological mechanisms.

Lancet Infect Dis. 2005 Dec;5(12):786-94.

Intravaginal practices, bacterial vaginosis, and women’s susceptibility to HIV infection: epidemiological evidence and biological mechanisms.

Myer L, Kuhn L, Stein ZA, Wright TC Jr, Denny L

Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. lmyer@cormack.uct.ac.za

ABSTRACT

Intravaginal practices such as “dry sex” and douching have been suggested as a risk factor that may increase women’s susceptibility to HIV infection. These behaviours appear common in different populations across sub-Saharan Africa, where practices include the use of antiseptic preparations, traditional medicines, or the insertion of fingers or cloths into the vagina. We systematically review the evidence for the association between women’s intravaginal practices and HIV infection. Although a number of cross-sectional studies have shown that prevalent HIV infection is more common among women reporting intravaginal practices, the temporal nature of this association is unclear. Current evidence suggests that bacterial vaginosis, which is a likely risk factor for HIV infection, may be a mediator of the association between intravaginal practices and HIV. Although biologically plausible mechanisms exist, there is currently little epidemiological evidence suggesting that intravaginal practices increase women’s susceptibility to HIV infection. Further research into factors that increase women’s susceptibility to HIV will help to inform the design of vaginal microbicides and other HIV prevention interventions.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Traditional intravaginal practices and the heterosexual transmission of disease: a review.

Sex Transm Dis. 2000 Apr;27(4):183-7.

Traditional intravaginal practices and the heterosexual transmission of disease: a review.

Brown JE, Brown RC

Community Health Department Chogoria Hospital, Kenya.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To review reports on the use and effects of traditional intravaginal substances and practices.

METHOD: The medical and social science literature of the past 50 years regarding use and effects of traditional intravaginal substances and practices is reviewed.

RESULTS: Traditional intravaginal practices have been described in 11 countries of sub-Saharan Africa, and also in Qatar, Indonesia, Thailand, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and the United States. Women’s reasons for the practices include personal hygiene, disease prevention or treatment, and enhancement of sexual experience. Few studies document damage to the vaginal epithelium or changes in vaginal flora due to these practices. No prospective studies link these practices to disease transmission.

CONCLUSION: The determination of how these practices affect disease transmission will require precise definition of independent variables, which is difficult because of the diversity of the practices. It is appropriate to search for intervening variables; specifically, the effects on the vaginal pH, flora, and epithelium.

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In search of sexual pleasure and fidelity: vaginal practices in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Cult Health Sex. 2009 Apr;11(3):267-83.

In search of sexual pleasure and fidelity: vaginal practices in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Scorgie F, Kunene B, Smit JA, Manzini N, Chersich MF, Preston-Whyte EM.

Centre for HIV/AIDS Network (HIVAN), University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. fscorgie@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Vaginal practices, such as intra-vaginal cleansing, drying and tightening, are suspected of placing women at higher risk of acquiring HIV and STIs. Yet, there is limited understanding of what these practices entail, what motivates women to undertake them and what their socio-cultural and historical meanings are. This paper explores the range of vaginal practices used by women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and locates these within the context of local patterns of migration and understandings of sexual health and pleasure. Study activities took place at an urban and rural site employing qualitative research techniques: semi-structured interviewing and an additional ethnographic component in the rural site. Vaginal practices were believed to be ubiquitous and a wide range of substances and procedures were described. Strong motivations for vaginal practices included women’s desire to enhance men’s sexual pleasure, ensure men’s fidelity and exercise agency and control in their relationships. The common use of traditional medicines in this quest to maintain stable relationships and affect the course of love, suggests a complexity that cannot be captured by simple terms like ‘dry sex’. We argue instead that any interventions to change women’s reliance on vaginal practices must recognise and attend to the broader social contexts in which they are embedded.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Predictors of vaginal practices for sex and hygiene in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: findings of a household survey and qualitative inquiry.

Cult Health Sex. 2011 Apr;13(4):381-98.

Predictors of vaginal practices for sex and hygiene in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: findings of a household survey and qualitative inquiry.

Scorgie F, Smit JA, Kunene B, Martin-Hilber A, Beksinska M, Chersich MF

Maternal, Adolescent and Child Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. fscorgie@match.org.za

Abstract

Vaginal practices in sub-Saharan Africa may increase HIV transmission and have important implications for development of microbicides and future HIV prevention technologies. It remains unclear which women undertake vaginal practices and what factors predict prevalence, practice type and choice of products. Using cross-sectional data from mixed research methods, we identify factors associated with vaginal practices among women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Data were gathered through focus group discussions, in-depth and key-informant interviews, followed by a province-wide, multi-stage cluster household survey, using structured questionnaires in face-to-face interviews with 867 women. This paper details six types of vaginal practices, which–despite their individual distinctiveness and diverse motivations–may be clustered into two broad groups: those undertaken for purposes of ‘hygiene’ (genital washing, douching and application) and those for ‘sexual motivations’ (application, insertion, ingestion and incisions). Multivariate analysis found significant associations between ‘hygiene’ practices and media access, religiosity and transactional sex. ‘Sexual’ practices were associated with partner concurrency, religiosity and use of injectable hormonal contraceptives. Future interventions relating to vaginal practices as well as microbicides need to reflect this characterisation of practices as sexual- and/or hygiene-related.

This article can be purchased in this LINK