Seminar on FGM/C by Armelle Andro at the Jardin des Plantes, Grand amphithéâtre d’entomologie, 43 rue Buffon (Paris, France) the next 27th October 2017.
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J Int Bioethique. 2015 Jul;26(3):63-75, 263.
Circumcision and excision: Towards a non-law of bioethics? [Article in French]
This article defines the practices of circumcision and excision, and studies their foundations. Then, it considers some of the conflicts (of rights, laws and cultures) inherent to these practices. Finally, it suggests that the solution to these conflicts may not lie in the law, but in a non-law of bioethics.
[Female genital mutilation – the excision. Reflections of the ethics committee of the medical association Avicenne of France]. [Article in French]
Messaadi N, Chaker A.
Soins. 2010 Jan-Feb;(742):13.
[Practice of excision in France, an un-edited national investigation]. [Article in French]
There is no LINK to view this article online.
Gynecol Obstet Fertil. Nov 2001 29(11): 824–828
[Mutilations génitales rituelles féminines. La parole aux femmes] [Article in french]
[Female genital mutilation. Women’s point of view]
Allag F, Abboud P, Mansour G, Zanardi M, Quéreux C
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered as the most dangerous custom still ritually practised and 2 million girls undergo the ordeal each year. This practice is anchored and fixed firmly in numerous African people’s culture and Western countries are confronted to it through African immigrants. In order to understand the justifications and the consequences of FGM we interviewed 14 genitally mutilated African women living in France. Unfortunately and despite the conscious knowledge of consequences and absurd side of such practice, yet it seems to be perpetuated over the descendants. Educational approach is the best solution to fight female genital mutilation fixed firmly in numerous African people’s culture.
Encephale. 2010 Oct;36(5):357-8. Epub 2010 Jan 27.
[Female sexual dysfunctions: myths, realities and perspectives].
[Article in French]
Douki Dedieu S.
No abstract is available for this article.
Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2006 Feb;34(2):134-6. Epub 2006 Feb 21.
[Psychological factors of genital automutilation and medico-ethical interest in emergency vulvoplasty]. [Article in French]
Fayad S, Srom V, Delotte J, Bafghi A, Sorci K, Bongain A.
Service de Gynécologie-Obstétrique, Reproduction et Médecine Foetale, Hôpital Archet-II, CHU de Nice-Sophia-Antipolis, BP 3079, 151, route de Saint-Antoine-de-Ginestière, 06202 Nice cedex 03, France.
The genital self-mutilation is not rare in women. Risk factors found in these cases are: mood disorders, food behavior anomalies and antecedents of sexual aggression. However, surgical repair is not done in emergency: we find no similar report to our clinical case describing an added up bilateral reduction nymphoplasty carried out in emergency after hemorrhagic genital self-mutilation. We discuss psychological risk factors, psychiatric diagnosis and optimal treatment, studied from medico-ethical point of view, for this surgical emergency.
Arch Pediatr. 2005 Mar;12(3):347-50.
[Sexual female mutilation]. [Article in French]
Rey-Salmon C, Vazquez P, Do Quang LD.
Unité médicojudiciaire, hôpital d’enfants Armand-Trousseau (AP-HP), 26, avenue du Docteur-Arnold-Netter, 75012 Paris, France. firstname.lastname@example.org
Each year, two million young girls are at risk of female sexual mutilation. Pediatricians are likely to be confronted with this problem. They must know to identify it as well as the complications to ensure a concerned assumption of the families, in the respect of the law.
Nat Rev Urol. 2012 Aug 7.
Sexual medicine: Pain and pleasure-reconstruction after female genital mutilation.
In 2004, the French National Health Service began to subsidize surgical reconstruction to treat dyspareunia in women who had undergone genital mutilation. The operation is now also offered to those seeking to improve their sex lives and physical appearance.
The Lancet. 2012 July 380(9837):134 – 141.
Reconstructive surgery after female genital mutilation: a prospective cohort study
Foldes P, Cuzin B, Andro A
Women who have undergone female genital mutilation rarely have access to the reconstructive surgery that is now available. Our objective was to assess the immediate and long-term outcomes of this surgery.
Methods Between 1998 and 2009, we included consecutive patients with female genital mutilation aged 18 years or older who had consulted a urologist at Poissy-St Germain Hospital, France. We used the WHO classification to prospectively include patients with type II or type III mutilation. The skin covering the stump was resected to reveal the clitoris. The suspensory ligament was then sectioned to mobilise the stump, the scar tissue was removed from the exposed portion and the glans was brought into a normal position. All patients answered a questionnaire at entry about their characteristics, expectations, and preoperative clitoris pleasure and pain, measured on a 5-point scale. Those patients who returned at 1 year for follow-up were questioned about clitoris pain and functionality. We compared data from the 1-year group with the total group of patients who had surgery.
Findings We operated on 2938 women with a mean age of 29·2 (SD 7·77 years; age at excision 6·1, SD 3·5 years). Mali, Senegal, and Ivory Coast were the main countries of origin, but 564 patients had undergone female genital mutilation in France. The 1-year follow-up visit was attended by 866 patients (29%). Expectations before surgery were identity recovery for 2933 patients (99%), improved sex life for 2378 patients (81%), and pain reduction for 847 patients (29%). At 1-year follow-up, 363 women (42%) had a hoodless glans, 239 (28%) had a normal clitoris, 210 (24%) had a visible projection, 51 (6%) had a palpable projection, and three (0·4%) had no change. Most patients reported an improvement, or at least no worsening, in pain (821 of 840 patients) and clitoral pleasure (815 of 834 patients). At 1 year, 430 (51%) of 841 women experienced orgasms. Immediate complications after surgery (haematoma, suture failure, moderate fever) were noted in 155 (5%) of the 2938 patients, and 108 (4%) were briefly re-admitted to hospital.
Interpretation Reconstructive surgery after female genital mutilation seems to be associated with reduced pain and restored pleasure. It needs to be made more readily available in developed countries by training surgeons.