Tag Archives: Germany

Human rights for women: the ethical and legal discussion about Female Genital Mutilation in Germany in comparison with other Western European countries

Med Health Care Philos. 2010 Aug;13(3):269-78. doi: 10.1007/s11019-010-9245-4.

Human rights for women: the ethical and legal discussion about Female Genital Mutilation in Germany in comparison with other Western European countries.

Krása K.

Institut für Geschichte und Ethik der Medizin, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Glueckstr. 10, 91054, Erlangen, Germany. kerstin.krasa@ethik.med.uni-erlangen.de

ABSTRACT

Within Western European countries the number of women and girls already genitally mutilated or at risk, is rising due to increasing rates of migration of Africans. The article compares legislative and ethical practices within the medical profession concerning female genital mutilation (FGM) in these countries. There are considerable differences in the number of affected women and in legislation and guidelines. For example, in France, Great Britain and Austria FGM is included in the criminal code as elements of crime, whereas in Germany and Switzerland FGM is brought to trial as bodily injury. So far trials only in France and Switzerland in connection with FGM resulted in convictions. France and Great Britain as former Colonial countries serve as an example of countries with a comparably great number of African immigrants. These countries have the best possibilities to intervene preventatively, due to legislation and detailed medical guidelines. For instance, an obligation exists in France to inform administrative and medical authorities if FGM is suspected. FGM so far is not explicitly part of the curriculum for medical training in any of the examined countries.

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[Medical and legal aspects of genital mutilation and circumcision part I: female genital mutilation (FGM)].

Arch Kriminol. 2011 Jan-Feb;227(1-2):1-22.

[Medical and legal aspects of genital mutilation and circumcision part I: female genital mutilation (FGM)].

[Article in German]

Dettmeyer R, Laux J, Friedl H, Zedler B, Bratzke H, Parzeller M.

Aus dem Institut für Rechtsmedizin der Universität Giessen.

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered to be against the law and against morality not only in Western countries, although a woman of age and able to consent may sometimes think differently. The procedure may have serious physical and emotional consequences for the girl or woman. Nevertheless there are attempts to justify the procedure with medical and hygienic pseudoarguments, ideology, freedom of religion, cultural identity and social adequacy. Outside the Western world, some people claim that religion and culture alone justify the practice. In Germany, parents can lose the right to determine the residence of their daughter, if she is faced with the risk of genital mutilation in order to prevent that the  child or girl is taken to her home country. Genital mutilation as a gender-specific threat is recognized as a reason to grant asylum or prevent deportation. Proposals to make genital mutilation a separate punishable offence are presently discussed by the legislator.

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German technical cooperation (GTZ) supra-regional project: promotion of initiatives to end female genital mutilation (FGM).

Afr J Reprod Health. 2006 Aug;10(2):18-23.

German technical cooperation (GTZ) supra-regional project: promotion of initiatives to end female genital mutilation (FGM).

Finke E.

No abstract is available for this article.

There is no link to view this article online.