Dev World Bioeth. 2017;17(2):134–140.
Punishment of Minor Female Genital Ritual Procedures: Is the Perfect the Enemy of the Good?
Jacobs AJ, Arora KS
Female genital alteration (FGA) is any cutting, removal or destruction of any part of the external female genitalia. Various FGA practices are common throughout the world. While most frequent in Africa and Asia, transglobal migration has brought ritual FGA to Western nations. All forms of FGA are generally considered undesirable for medical and ethical reasons when performed on minors. One ritual FGA procedure is the vulvar nick (VN). This is a small laceration to the vulva that does not cause morphological changes. Besides being performed as a primary ritual procedure it has been proposed as a substitute for more extensive forms of FGA. Measures advocated or taken to reduce the burden of FGA can be punitive or non-punitive. Even if it is unethical to perform VN, we argue that it also is unethical to attempt to suppress it through punishment. First, punishment of VN is likely to cause more harm than good overall, even to those ostensibly being protected. Second, punishment is likely to exceed legitimate retributive ends. We do not argue in favor of performing VN. Rather, we argue that non-punitive strategies such as education and harm reduction should be employed.
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Midwifery, 2013, 29(8), 73-77
Female genital mutilation and female genital schistosomiasis-bourouwel, the worm: Traditional belief or medical explanation for a cruel practice?
Wacker J, Zida A, Sitz C, Schweinfurth D, Briegel J
Female genital mutilation (FGM), defined as the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia for ritual or religious reasons, is routinely practised by ethnic groups in more than 20 countries across the North African savannah as well as in Egypt, the southern part of the Arab peninsula, Malaysia and Indonesia. The total number of women mutilated has been estimated 100–140 million (WHO, 2008; cf. 85–115 million: Dehne et al., 1997). In Africa, three million young women are at risk to be circumcised annually (WHO, 2008).
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Reprod Health Matters. 2014 May;22(43):169-77. doi: 10.1016/S0968-8080(14)43759-5.
Female genital cutting in Hargeisa, Somaliland: is there a move towards less severe forms?
Lunde IB, Sagbakken M.
According to several sources, little progress is being made in eliminating the cutting of female genitalia. This paper, based on qualitative interviews and observations, explores perceptions of female genital cutting and elimination of the phenomenon in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Two main groups of participants were interviewed: (1) 22 representatives of organisations whose work directly relates to female genital cutting; and (2) 16 individuals representing different groups of society. It was found that there is an increasing use of medical staff and equipment when a girl undergoes the procedure of female genital cutting; the use of terminology is crucial in understanding current perceptions of female genital cutting; religion is both an important barrier and facilitator of elimination; and finally, traditional gender structures are currently being challenged in Hargeisa. The findings of this study suggest that it is important to consider current perceptions on practices of female genital cutting and on abandonment of female genital cutting, in order to gain useful knowledge on the issue of elimination. The study concludes that elimination of female genital cutting is a multifaceted process which is constantly negotiated in a diversity of social settings.
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Education and the Knowledge Society. IFIP International Federation for Information Processing. 2005, 161: 231-236.
E-solidarity, a means of fighting against FGM (Female Genital Mutilation)
This project aims to contribute to the eradication of the practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) throughout the Maasailand in Kenya in agreement with the World Health Organisation (WHO) policy by large-scale distribution of information to the remote Maasai villages, by creation of awareness, by proposing alternative rituals, by improvement of the social (and economic) status of women and by encouragement of Maasai families to send female children to school. e-Society means will be used in the understanding that these are not in opposition to preserving tradition and ethnic identity
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