Tag Archives: health knowledge

Prevalence and associated factors of circumcision among daughters of reproductive aged women in the Hababo Guduru District, Western Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. Gajaa M1, Wakgari N2, Kebede Y3, Derseh L3.

BMC Womens Health. 2016 Jul 22;16:42. doi: 10.1186/s12905-016-0322-6.

Prevalence and associated factors of circumcision among daughters of reproductive aged women in the Hababo Guduru District, Western Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

Gajaa M, Wakgari N, Kebede Y, Derseh L


BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation is currently a public health problem which needs investigation and immediate action. Ethiopia is the second-ranked African country in terms of having higher numbers of circumcised girls. This study aimed to determine prevalence and associated factors of circumcision among daughters of reproductive aged women. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted on 610 mothers. The total sample was allocated proportionally in three randomly selected kebeles based on the number of reproductive age mothers with at least one daughter under 15 years old. A systematic random sampling technique was used to draw the respondents. A structured and interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the association of different variables. RESULTS: Out of 610 mothers, 293 (48 %) had at least one circumcised daughter. Having a good knowledge about genital mutilation (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] =0. 14, 95 % CI: 0.09-0.23), positive attitude (AOR = 0. 26, 95 % CI: 0.16-0.43), being literate (AOR = 0.50, CI: 0.28-0.91) and living in urban area (AOR = 0.30, 95 % CI: 0.17-0.51) had a lower odds of female genital mutilation. In addition, not knowing genital mutilation as a crime (AOR = 5, 95 % CI: 3.07-8.19), and being in the age group of 40-49 (AOR = 2.56, 95 % CI: 1.40-4.69) had a higher odds of having circumcised daughter. Furthermore, fathers being traditional religion followers (AOR = 0.22, 95 % CI: 0.07-0.74) had less odds of having a circumcised daughter as compared to those who follow Ethiopian Orthodox Christian. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, about half of the mothers had at least one circumcised daughter. Mothers’ knowledge, attitude, age, residence, educational status and fathers’ religion were significantly associated with female genital mutilation. Hence, convincing mothers about the ill effects of circumcision and working with religious leaders is recommended.

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Health professionals worldwide lack knowledge on female genital mutilation

BMJ. 2015;351:h6693

Health professionals worldwide lack knowledge on female genital mutilation

Kmietowicz Z


More training and guidance on treating women and girls who have had female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C) are needed for health professionals around the world, a review has concluded.

Researchers from Sydney, Australia, conducted a systematic review to assess health professionals’ experience of FGM/C in their clinical setting, their knowledge of FGM/C types, complications of the practice, and their access to education and training.

They found 159 research papers, but the standard was generally poor. Only 18 studies met their inclusion criteria, and none met all eight quality criteria. …

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A mixed-method synthesis of knowledge, experiences and attitudes of health professionals to Female Genital Mutilation

J Adv Nurs. 2015 Oct 5. doi: 10.1111/jan.12823. [Epub ahead of print]

A mixed-method synthesis of knowledge, experiences and attitudes of health
professionals to Female Genital Mutilation

Reig-Alcaraz M, Siles-González J, Solano-Ruiz C.

AIM: To synthesize knowledge, attitudes and experiences of health professionals about Female Genital Mutilation.

BACKGROUND: Despite the World Health Organization campaigning to stop FGM, and it being illegal in many countries, the practice remains common in some countries and cultures. Migration has contributed to the growth of this practice in countries where it was not previously carried out.

DESIGN: Mixed-method synthesis.

DATA SOURCES: Search of ten electronic databases: 2006-2014. Manual scanning of reference lists and summary feeds from international organizations such as WHO, UN and UNICEF.

REVIEW METHODS: Thematic synthesis comparing country of origin where the practice was common with country of residence where migrant women affected by the practice reside. 17 included descriptive, quantitative, qualitative studies and grey literature studies in English or Spanish.

RESULTS: Seven themes were developed: Ignorance of FGM practice and its consequences; Lack of adherence to FGM protocols and guidelines; Socially constructed acceptance of FGM; Ignorance of legislation and legal status of FGM;  Condoning, sanctioning or supporting FGM; Lack of information and training; Nurses and Midwives as key to protecting and supporting girls and women.

CONCLUSIONS: Although some nurses and midwives are in the forefront of eradicating FGM this is counterbalanced by health professionals (including nurses and midwives) who condone, sanction or support the practice with some calling for medicalization of FGM as a legitimate procedure. Girls at risk need better protection and women affected need more competent and cultural care from health professionals. Health and legal systems, professional regulation and governance, and professional training require strengthening to eradicate FGM, prevent the medicalization of FGM as an acceptable procedure, and to better manage the lifelong consequences for affected girls and women.

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Epidemiology, Regional Characteristics, Knowledge, and Attitude Toward Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting in Southern Iran

J Sex Med. 2015 Jul;12(7):1577-83. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12938. Epub 2015 Jul 2.
Epidemiology, Regional Characteristics, Knowledge, and Attitude Toward Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting in Southern Iran
Dehghankhalili M, Fallahi S, Mahmudi F, Ghaffarpasand F, Shahrzad ME, Taghavi M, Fereydooni Asl M
INTRODUCTION: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), also known as female circumcision, is an ancient traditional procedure that involves partial or total removal of the female external genitalia for nonmedical reasons. Although it is well described in African and some Arabic countries, data from Iran are scarce. AIM: To describe the epidemiology, regional characteristics, knowledge, and attitude toward FGM/C in Southern Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted during a 36-month period from 2010 to 2013 in Hormozgan, a southern province of Iran near the Persian Gulf. We included 780 women in six major rural areas of the province who referred to healthcare centers for vaccination, midwifery, or family planning services. All participants underwent complete pelvic examination to determine the type of FGM. The questionnaire consisted of several sections such as demographic and baseline characteristics, and two self-report sections addressing the knowledge and attitude toward FGM/C and its complications. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics including age, educational level, marital status, religion, and nationality were the independent variables. RESULTS: Among the participants, 535 (68.5%) had undergone FGM/C. FGM/C was associated with higher age (P = 0.002), Afghan nationality (P = 0.003), Sunni Islam as religion (P = 0.019), illiteracy (P < 0.001), and family history of FGM/C in mother (P < 0.001), sister (P < 0.001), and grandmother (P < 0.001). Ancient traditions in the area (57.1%) were mentioned as the most important factor leading to FMG/C. Urinary tract infection was the most common reported complication (60.4%). CONCLUSION: FGM/C is a common practice in rural areas of Southern Iran. It is associated with increased age, illiteracy, Sunni Islam religion, Afghan nationality, and positive family history. Lack of knowledge toward FGM/C is the main cause of its high prevalence and continuation in the area. Dehghankhalili M, Fallahi S, Mahmudi F, Ghaffarpasand F, Shahrzad ME, Taghavi M, and Fereydooni Asl M. Epidemiology, regional characteristics, knowledge, and attitude toward female genital mutilation/cutting in Southern Iran.

Genital mutilation of girls

Women’s Health (Lond Engl), 3(4): 475-485 , DOI 10.2217/17455057.3.4.475

Genital mutilation of girls

Almroth L, Elmusharaf S


Female genital mutilation is a traditional practice affecting girls when their genitals are cut for social, cultural or other non-medical reasons. It is estimated that 3 million girls undergo the procedure every year, mainly in areas in Africa and Asia where it is traditionally practised, but owing to migration patterns, girls living in other parts of the world are also at risk. This article describes the practice of female genital mutilation in a changing world and outlines some aspects in relation to female genital mutilation in girls and women that health staff, teachers, social workers and others should pay attention to. Knowledge regarding complications is important for healthcare, but when complications have been used as arguments against the practice this has had limited effect. Information regarding health risks has to be integrated into culturally sensitive approaches based on human rights and improving the situation for girls and women in order to reach a point where genital mutilation of girls will be generally abandoned.

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FGMReview. Design of a Knowledge Management Tool on Female Genital Mutilation

J Trans Nursing 2014, print iFirst

FGMReview. Design of a Knowledge Management Tool on Female Genital Mutilation

Martínez Pérez, G., Turestsky, R


Web-based literature search engines may not be user-friendly for some readers searching for information on female genital mutilation. This is a traditional practice that has no health benefits, and about 140 million girls and women worldwide have undergone it. In 2012, the website FGMReview was created with the aim to offer a user-friendly, accessible, scalable, and innovative knowledge management tool specialized in female genital mutilation. The design of this website was guided by a conceptual model based on the use of benchmarking techniques and requirements engineering, an area of knowledge from the computer informatics field, influenced by the Transcultural Nursing model. The purpose of this article is to describe this conceptual model. Nurses and other health care providers can use this conceptual model to guide their methodological approach to design and launch other eHealth projects.

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A multicentre study on knowledge and attitude of nurses in northern Nigeria concerning female genital mutilation

Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2014 Apr;19(2):134-40. doi: 10.3109/13625187.2014.885940. Epub 2014 Mar 6.

A multicentre study on knowledge and attitude of nurses in northern Nigeria concerning female genital mutilation.

Ashimi A, Aliyu L, Shittu M, Amole T.


Objective To determine the knowledge and attitude of nurses in northern Nigeria concerning female genital mutilation (FGM). Methods Cross-sectional study in which 350 nurses working in three tertiary health institutions in northern Nigeria were assessed, using a self-administered questionnaire, with regard to their knowledge of, and attitude to, FGM.

Results Two hundred and sixty-five respondents (76%) were female, 190 (54%) were married. Most (249; 71%) were Muslims, and 228 (65%), of Hausa/Fulani ethnicity. Their ages ranged from 18-60 years with a mean of 29.3 ± 8.9. Among the respondents, 318 (91%) had heard of FGM; of these 127 (40%) knew no particular type of FGM. Only 155 (49%) could identify ‘Angurya’ and ‘Gishiri’ cuts as forms of FGM. Two hundred and forty-five (77%), 231 (73%) and 200 (63%), respectively, identified haemorrhage; risk of HIV, hepatitis, and tetanus; and painful sexual intercourse as possible complications of FGM. Thirteen (4%) would perform it and also would have it done on their daughters.

Conclusion The nurses studied had a high level of awareness of FGM and a good general knowledge of complications associated with FGM. However, only half knew what ‘Angurya’ and ‘Gishiri’ cuts were. A few would perform FGM.

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Health care for immigrant women in Italy: are we really ready? A survey on knowledge about female genital mutilation.

Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2014;50(1):49-53.DOI: 10.4415/ANN_14_01_08.FREE

Health care for immigrant women in Italy: are we really ready? A survey on knowledge about female genital mutilation.

Caroppo E, Almadori A, Giannuzzi V, Brogna P, Diodati A, Bria P.


Background. Because of immigration, female genital mutilation (FGM) is an issue of increasing concern in western countries. Nevertheless operators without a specific training may ignore the health condition of women subjected to this practice and fail to provide them adequate assistance. The purpose of the study was to estimate the current knowledge about FGM among social and health care assistants working with asylum seeker.

Material and methods. From October to December 2012, a questionnaire was used to interview 41 operators working in CARA (Shelter for Refugees and Asylum Seekers) in central and southern Italy.

Results. Only 7.3% of respondents states to know well FGM, while 4.9% do not know it at all. 70.7% declare to have never met or assisted a woman with FGM, nevertheless all respondents work with asylum seeker from countries where FGM are performed.

Conclusions. Migration fluxes to Italy over the past decade created a healthcare challenge: women with FGM have specific medical and psychological problems that doctors, nurses and social assistants without specific training are not usually able to manage.

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Knowledge of health personnel about female genital mutilation

Acta méd. costarric vol.50 no.4 San José dic. 2008FREE

Knowledge of health personnel about female genital mutilation (Letter in Spanish)

Cambronero-Aguilar I, Campos-Cortés C, Chavarría-Bolaños R, Chavarría-Ulate D, Gamboa- Ramón K, Loría- Chavarría G, Sandí Grettchen F


Background and aim: Nowadays, the short and long-term consequences in psychological, sexual, social and medical areas of female genital mutilation are known. It is a common practice in non occidental countries. However because of globalization and migration it has been a problem in different countries. In this context it is very important that the medical and nursing professionals have knowledge about its medical complications and management. The present study was undertaken to determine the knowledge of medical doctors and nurses regarding female genital mutilation, its possible medical consequences and its clinical management. Materials and method: A survey was made to 70 medical doctors and 30 nurses, at 4 national hospitals of the Costa Rican social security system, between October and November 2006. Result: 81% know about female genital mutilation, however 63% do not know about its obstetric complications and 97% said they did not know the deinfibulation method, 60% of the medical doctors do not know how to manage a case. Discussion: The result is explained because this is not a common diagnosis in this country. Nevertheless, the documentation of a case in Costa Rica and the continued migration of these populations justify the need of more information and knowledge about management of these patients. It is relevant the role of continue medical education.

Impact of the complete ban on female genital cutting on the attitude of educated women from Upper Egypt toward the practice

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013 Mar;120(3):275-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2012.10.010. Epub 2012 Dec 11.

Impact of the complete ban on female genital cutting on the attitude of educated women from Upper Egypt toward the practice.

Hassanin IM, Shaaban OM.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of female genital cutting (FGC) before and 5 years after the law completely banned the practice in Egypt, and evaluate the attitude of educated mothers of girls toward FGC in Upper Egypt.

METHODS: All women attending 2 outpatient clinics in Upper Egypt were approached from January 1 through November 30, 2011. A trained nurse interviewed those who had daughters, and factors influencing their attitude toward FGC were evaluated. The participants in a previous study done in the same locality acted a historical comparison group.

RESULTS: The percentage of women who had FGC performed on at least 1 daughter was significantly lower in 2011 than in 2006 (71.6% vs 77.8%, P=0.04). The main reason for performing FGC, given by 42.6% of the participants, was family pressure. The percentage of FGC procedures practiced by physicians was significantly lower in 2011 than it was in 2006 (34.6% vs 39.3%, P=0.04).

CONCLUSION: The decrease in prevalence of FGC after its complete ban was small after 5 years, with little change in attitude among educated families in Upper Egypt. In addition to the current law, a change in attitude will be needed to wipe out this custom.

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