Tag Archives: Health Survey

Married women’s negotiation for safer sexual intercourse in Kenya: Does experience of female genital mutilation matter?

Clinical Simulation in Nursing. 2017 Dec;14:79-84. doi: 10.1016/j.srhc.2017.09.003. Epub 2017 Sep 30.

Married women’s negotiation for safer sexual intercourse in Kenya: Does experience of female genital mutilation matter?

Chai X, Sano Y, Kansanga M, Baada J, Antabe R

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Married women’s ability to negotiate for safer sex is important for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa, including Kenya. Yet, its relationship to female genital mutilation is rarely explored, although female genital mutilation has been described as a social norm and marker of womanhood that can control women’s sexuality. Drawing on the social normative influence theory, this study addressed this void in the literature. METHODS: We analysed data from the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey using logistic regression. Our sample included 8,602 married women. Two indicators of safer sex, namely the ability to refuse sex and the ability to ask for condom use, were explored. RESULTS: We found that women who had undergone genital mutilation were significantly less likely to report that they can refuse sex (OR=0.87; p<.05) and that they can ask for condom use during sexual intercourse (OR=0.62; p<.001) than their counterparts who had not undergone genital mutilation, while controlling for theoretically relevant variables. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the experience of female genital mutilation may influence married women’s ability to negotiate for safer sex through gendered socialization and expectations. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. For instance, culturally sensitive programmes are needed that target both married women who have undergone genital mutilation and their husbands to understand the importance of safer sexual practices within marriage.

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Trends and protective factors of female genital mutilation in Burkina Faso: 1999 to 2010

Int J Equity Health. 2015 May 8;14(1):42. doi: 10.1186/s12939-015-0171-1. FREE

Trends and protective factors of female genital mutilation in Burkina Faso: 1999 to 2010.

Chikhungu LC, Madise NJ

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is common in several African countries and some parts of Asia. This practice is not only a violation of human rights, but also puts women at risk of adverse health outcomes. This paper analysed the trends in the prevalence of FGM in Burkina Faso and investigated factors that are associated with this practice following the enactment of an FGM law in 1996.

METHODS: The study used the Burkina Faso Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data sets from women aged 15 to 49 years undertaken in 1999, 2003 and 2010. Chi square tests were carried out to investigate whether there has been a change in the levels of FGM in Burkina Faso between 1999 and 2010 and multilevel logistic regression analysis were employed to identify factors that were significantly associated with undergoing FGM.

RESULTS: The levels of FGM in Burkina Faso declined significantly from 83.6% in 1999 to 76.1% in 2010. The percentage of women circumcised between the ages of 0 to 5 years increased from 34.2% in 1999 to 69% in 2010. Significantly more women in 2010 than in 1999 were of the opinion that FGM should stop (90.6% versus 75.1%, respectively). In 2010, the odds of getting circumcised were lowest amongst women that were born in the period 1990 to 1995 (immediately before the FGM law was enacted) compared to women born in the period 1960-1965 [OR 0.16 (0.13,0.20)]. There was significant variation of FGM across communities. Other factors that were significantly associated with being circumcised were education level, religion, ethnicity, urban residence and age at marriage.

CONCLUSIONS: Although the prevalence of FGM has declined in Burkina Faso, the levels are still high. In order to tackle the practice of FGM in Burkina Faso, the government of Burkina Faso and its development partners need to encourage girls’ participation in education and target its sensitization campaigns against FGM towards Muslim women, women residing in rural areas and women of Mossi ethnic background.

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A cross sectional study on factors associated with harmful traditional practices among children less than 5 years in Axum town, north Ethiopia, 2013.

Reprod Health. 2014 Jun 21;11:46. doi: 10.1186/1742-4755-11-46.FREE

A cross sectional study on factors associated with harmful traditional practices among children less than 5 years in Axum town, north Ethiopia, 2013.

Gebrekirstos K, Abebe M, Fantahun A.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Every social grouping in the world has its own cultural practices and beliefs which guide its members on how they should live or behave. Harmful traditional practices that affect children are Female genital mutilation, Milk teeth extraction, Food taboo, Uvula cutting, keeping babies out of exposure to sun, and Feeding fresh butter to new born babies. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with harmful traditional practices among children less than 5 years of age in Axum town, North Ethiopia.

METHODS: Community based cross sectional study was conducted in 752 participants who were selected using multi stage sampling; Simple random sampling method was used to select ketenas from all kebelles of Axum town. After proportional allocation of sample size, systematic random sampling method was used to get the study participants. Data was collected using interviewer administered Tigrigna version questionnaire, it was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics was calculated and logistic regressions were used to analyze the data.

RESULTS: Out of the total sample size 50.7% children were females, the mean age of children was 26.28 months and majority of mothers had no formal education. About 87.8% mothers had performed at least one traditional practice to their children; uvula cutting was practiced on 86.9% children followed by milk teeth extraction 12.5% and eye borrows incision 2.4% children. Fear of swelling, pus and rapture of the uvula was the main reason to perform uvula cutting.

CONCLUSION: The factors associated with harmful traditional practices were educational status, occupation, religion of mothers and harmful traditional practices performed on the mothers.

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Female genital mutilation in infants and young girls: report of sixty cases observed at the general hospital of abobo (abidjan, cote d’ivoire, west Africa).

Int J Pediatr. 2014;2014:837471. doi: 10.1155/2014/837471. Epub 2014 Mar 4.FREE

Female genital mutilation in infants and young girls: report of sixty cases observed at the general hospital of abobo (abidjan, cote d’ivoire, west Africa).

Plo K, Asse K, Seï D, Yenan J.

ABSTRACT

The practice of female genital mutilations continues to be recurrent in African communities despite the campaigns, fights, and laws to ban it. A survey was carried out in infants and young girls at the General Hospital of Abobo in Cote D’Ivoire. The purpose of the study was to describe the epidemiological aspects and clinical findings related to FGM in young patients. Four hundred nine (409) females aged from 1 to 12 years and their mothers entered the study after their consent. The results were that 60/409 patients (15%) were cut. The majority of the young females came from Muslim families (97%); the earlier age at FGM procedure in patients is less than 5 years: 87%. Amongst 409 mothers, 250 women underwent FGM which had other daughters cut. Women were mainly involved in the FGM and their motivations were virginity, chastity, body cleanliness, and fear of clitoris similar to penis. Only WHO types I and II were met. If there were no incidental events occurred at the time of the procedure, the obstetrical future of these young females would be compromised. With FGM being a harmful practice, health professionals and NGOs must unite their efforts in people education to abandon the procedure.

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Health care for immigrant women in Italy: are we really ready? A survey on knowledge about female genital mutilation.

Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2014;50(1):49-53.DOI: 10.4415/ANN_14_01_08.FREE

Health care for immigrant women in Italy: are we really ready? A survey on knowledge about female genital mutilation.

Caroppo E, Almadori A, Giannuzzi V, Brogna P, Diodati A, Bria P.

ABSTRACT

Background. Because of immigration, female genital mutilation (FGM) is an issue of increasing concern in western countries. Nevertheless operators without a specific training may ignore the health condition of women subjected to this practice and fail to provide them adequate assistance. The purpose of the study was to estimate the current knowledge about FGM among social and health care assistants working with asylum seeker.

Material and methods. From October to December 2012, a questionnaire was used to interview 41 operators working in CARA (Shelter for Refugees and Asylum Seekers) in central and southern Italy.

Results. Only 7.3% of respondents states to know well FGM, while 4.9% do not know it at all. 70.7% declare to have never met or assisted a woman with FGM, nevertheless all respondents work with asylum seeker from countries where FGM are performed.

Conclusions. Migration fluxes to Italy over the past decade created a healthcare challenge: women with FGM have specific medical and psychological problems that doctors, nurses and social assistants without specific training are not usually able to manage.

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[Feminine genitals modification: survey of a new phenomenon for nurse today. Second Part].

Prof Inferm. 2006 Oct-Dec;59(4):242-5.

[Feminine genitals modification: survey of a new phenomenon for nurse today. Second Part]. [Article in Italian]

Mitello L, Proietti A.

DAI, Dott., Coord.re Infermieristico Azienda Ospedaliera S. Camillo-Fornanini, Prof a c. Università degli studi di Roma La Sapienza, Italy.

ABSTRACT

The study was performed to find out how much health workers in a Rome Hospital knew about the phenomenon of female genital modifications. For this purpose a questionnaire previously employed in a project financed by the EEC and the Rome City Council was used.

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Incontinence and trauma: sexual violence, female genital cutting and proxy measures of gynecological fistula.

Soc Sci Med. 2009 Mar;68(5):971-9. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.12.006. Epub 2009 Jan 6.

Incontinence and trauma: sexual violence, female genital cutting and proxy measures of gynecological fistula.

Peterman A, Johnson K.

University of North Carolina, Department of Public Policy, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3435, USA. apeterma@email.unc.edu

ABSTRACT

Obstetric fistula, characterized by urinary or fecal incontinence via the vagina, has begun to receive attention on the international public health agenda, however less attention has been given to traumatic fistula. Field reports indicate that trauma contributes to the burden of vaginal fistula, especially in regions wrought by civil unrest, however evidence is largely anecdotal or facility-based. This paper specifically examines the co-occurrence of incontinence and two potential sources of trauma: sexual violence and female genital cutting using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys in Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda and Ethiopia. Multivariate selection models are used to control for sampling differences by country. Results indicate that sexual violence is a significant determinant of incontinence in Rwanda and Malawi, however not in Uganda. Simulations predict that elimination of sexual violence would result in from a 7 to a 40% reduction of the total burden of incontinence. In contrast, no evidence is found that female genital cutting contributes to incontinence and this finding is robust for types of cutting and high risk samples. Results point to the importance of reinforcing prevention programs which seek to address prevention of sexual violence and for the integration of services to better serve women experiencing both sexual violence and incontinence.

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