Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.
Improve reporting of female genital mutilation, MPs tell doctors
Doctors must be encouraged to report cases of female genital mutilation (FGM) to tackle what is still a woefully under-reported crime, MPs have claimed.
In a report1 based on their follow-up inquiry on FGM published by the parliamentary Home Affairs Select Committee on 14 March, MPs said that “buck passing” for failure to prosecute the crime had to stop…
Criminalisation, sexual and reproductive rights, public health–and justice.
The papers in this journal issue are about the law and criminalisation relating to rape and sexual violence, female genital mutilation (FGM), selling and buying sex, provision and use of modern contraception and induced abortion, homosexuality, and HIV transmission and exposure. The papers are highly thought-provoking, especially when read together, not least because the question of whether criminalisation is a good thing or a bad thing must be answered quite, quite differently in relation to each criminalised practice explored. It is easy to argue why modern contraception and induced abortion should be legal because they are necessary to protect women’s lives and health, and that sexual identity is inherent in the person and must be respected by society and protected in law. It is not so easy to determine how justice should be best served, as opposed to exacting retribution or revenge, or how to protect the rights of both perpetrators and victims, when a serious or life-threatening harm has been done, including and even in the absence of criminal intent to harm, as with HIV transmission and exposure….
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, International Islamic Center for Population Studies and Research, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. email@example.com
Reinfibulation is resuturing after delivery or gynecological procedures of the incised scar tissue resulting from infibulation. Despite the global fight against female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), reinfibulation of previously mutilated or circumcised women is still performed in various countries around the world. A good estimate of the prevalence of reinfibulation is difficult to obtain, but it can be inferred that 6.5-10.4million women are likely to have been reinfibulated worldwide. Women who undergo reinfibulation have little influence on the decision-making and are usually persuaded by the midwife or birth attendant to undergo the procedure immediately following labor or gynecological operation. Although medicalization of reinfibulation may reduce its immediate risks, it has no effect on the incidence of long-term risks. Reinfibulation is performed mainly for the financial benefit of the operator, and cultural values that have been perpetuated for generations. Reinfibulation has no benefits and is associated with complications for the woman and the unborn child. Its medicalization violates the medical code of ethics and should be abandoned. International and national efforts should be combined to eradicate this practice.
Human Rights & Human Welfare Journal. Topical review Digest: Human Rights in Sub-Saharan Africa digest.
Violated: Women’s Human Rights in Sub-Saharan Africa
By Kathryn Birdwell Wester
EXTRACT: In contemporary sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), women are facing human rights abuses unparalleled elsewhere in the world. Despite the region’s diversity, its female inhabitants largely share experiences of sexual discrimination and abuse, intimate violence, political marginalization, and economic deprivation. Consider the following…
Human rights for women: the ethical and legal discussion about Female Genital Mutilation in Germany in comparison with other Western European countries.
Institut für Geschichte und Ethik der Medizin, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Glueckstr. 10, 91054, Erlangen, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
Within Western European countries the number of women and girls already genitally mutilated or at risk, is rising due to increasing rates of migration of Africans. The article compares legislative and ethical practices within the medical profession concerning female genital mutilation (FGM) in these countries. There are considerable differences in the number of affected women and in legislation and guidelines. For example, in France, Great Britain and Austria FGM is included in the criminal code as elements of crime, whereas in Germany and Switzerland FGM is brought to trial as bodily injury. So far trials only in France and Switzerland in connection with FGM resulted in convictions. France and Great Britain as former Colonial countries serve as an example of countries with a comparably great number of African immigrants. These countries have the best possibilities to intervene preventatively, due to legislation and detailed medical guidelines. For instance, an obligation exists in France to inform administrative and medical authorities if FGM is suspected. FGM so far is not explicitly part of the curriculum for medical training in any of the examined countries.
They took me and told me nothing. Female Genital Mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan
Human Rights Watch
In Iraqi Kurdistan a survey by the Ministry of Human Rights in 2009 suggests that in one district over 40
percent of women and girls aged 11-24 years have been subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM). An
NGO survey covering a wider geographical area gives even higher figures. The practice involves the cutting
out of the clitoris, and is carried out mainly on girls between the ages of three and 12 years at the request of
their female relatives, usually by a traditional midwife using an unsterile razor blade. As Gola S. explains,
girls are often unaware what is about to happen to them, they experience great pain during the procedure
and afterwards, and the practice can have lasting physical, sexual and psychological health consequences.
Hastings Center Report. Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012. DOI: 10.1002/hast.91. Nov-dec 2012 42(6) 28-29.
Aesthetic Enhancement? Or Human Rights Violation?
The view that we must respect cultural traditions is a welcome change from the past, when colonial powers ridiculed native customs and often sought to eradicate them. Nevertheless, it is reasonable to ask whether there is a limit to tolerance of a ritual that has been designated a “harmful traditional practice” by the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, the United Nations Population Fund, and the recently created agency, UN Women. The article “Seven Things To Know About Female Genital Surgeries in Africa,” by the Public Policy Advisory Network on Female Genital Surgeries in Africa, contends that a need exists for more balanced critical thinking and open debate about what the authors choose to call “female genital surgery.” No one can reasonably quarrel with the call for accurate information in descriptions of the methods and consequences of female genital cutting. The network’s own discussion of the facts is highly questionable, however.
Swiss Med Wkly. 2011 Jan 6;140:w13137. doi: 10.4414/smw.2010.13137.
Care of women with female genital mutilation/cutting.
Abdulcadir J, Margairaz C, Boulvain M, Irion O.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospitals of Geneva, 30, Bld de la Cluse, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland. email@example.com
In multi-ethnic European society medical professionals are faced with an increasing number of women originating from countries where female genital mutilations/cuttings (FGM/C) are practised. Recent studies, however, emphasise the lack of knowledge on this subject. This review article aims to present FGM/C as a complex socio-healthcare and multidisciplinary issue, outlining the definition, classification, epidemiology and anthropologico-legal aspects of FGM/C. It explains the approach to be adopted to FGM/C women, focusing on
defibulation, clitoral restoration/repair and re-infibulation. Finally, it reports on the discussions surrounding pricking/nicking and the proposals for alternative rituals in recent years.
Prevalence and effects of violence against women in a rural community in Minia governorate, Egypt.
Habib SR, Abdel Azim EK, Fawzy IA, Kamal NN, El Sherbini AM.
Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Egypt.
This study was carried out to investigate prevalence and the characteristics of domestic violence (DV) against women in a rural area in Minia governorate, Egypt, as well as its physical and psychological consequences. Seven hundred and seventy-two women were interviewed. Sociodemographic data were collected; the WHO questionnaire was used to identify the abuse; the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IIIR (SCID) to detect psychiatric disorders. Abused females constituted 57.4% of the total sample. There were significant relationships between DV and low education, low income, higher number of children, and husband’s education. Psychiatric disorders occurred in 18% of the sample. There were statistically significant relationships between psychological and physical abuse of women and the occurrence of psychiatric disorders. In conclusion, DV against women was related to various negative health outcomes, and it is recommended to be given its real importance in both Forensic Medicine Council and in psychiatric assessment.