Tag Archives: Humans

Members of the species Homo sapiens.

Consider the personhood of women who experienced genital cutting

Mayo Clin Proc. 2013 Oct;88(10):1180. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.08.004.

Consider the personhood of women who experienced genital cutting.

Bergstrom AR, Nur F, Davis DL.

NO ABSTRACT IS AVAILABLE

Comment in Mayo Clin Proc. 2013 Oct;88(10):1180-1.

Comment on Mayo Clin Proc. 2013 Jun;88(6):618-29.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

In reply-consider the personhood of women who experienced genital cutting.

Mayo Clin Proc. 2013 Oct;88(10):1180-1. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.08.003.

In reply-consider the personhood of women who experienced genital cutting.

Hearst A, Molnar A.

NO ABSTRACT IS AVAILABLE

Comment on:

Mayo Clin Proc. 2013 Oct;88(10):1180.

Mayo Clin Proc. 2013 Jun;88(6):618-29.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Female genital mutilation: a literature review.

Nurs Stand. 2013 Sep 4-10;28(1):41-7. doi: 10.7748/ns2013.09.28.1.41.e7750.

Female genital mutilation: a literature review.

Terry L, Harris K.

Faculty of Health and Social Care, London South Bank University, UK. terrylm@lsbu.ac.uk

ABSTRACT

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a harmful practice involving the removal or alteration of parts of the female genitalia for non-therapeutic reasons. It may be carried out on cultural grounds, and is associated with immediate and long-term physical and psychological problems. This literature review explores the prevalence of and attitudes to FGM, personal experiences of women who have undergone the procedure and effective nursing care of this patient group.

There is no LINK to view this article online

Facts and controversies on female genital mutilation and Islam.

Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2013 Feb;18(1):10-4. doi: 10.3109/13625187.2012.749982. Epub 2013 Jan 4.

Facts and controversies on female genital mutilation and Islam.

Rouzi AA.

ABSTRACT

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. aarouzi@gmail.com Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a very ancient traditional and cultural ritual. Strategies and policies have been implemented to abandon this practice. However, despite commendable work, it is still prevalent, mainly in Muslim countries. FGM predates Islam. It is not mentioned in the Qur’an (the verbatim word of God in Islam). Muslim religious authorities agree that all types of mutilation, including FGM, are condemned. ‘Sensitivity’ to cultural traditions that erroneously associate FGM with Islam is misplaced. The principle of ‘do no harm’, endorsed by Islam, supersedes cultural practices, logically eliminating FGM from receiving any Islamic religious endorsement.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Female genital cutting: an evidence-based approach to clinical management for the primary care physician.

Mayo Clin Proc. 2013 Jun;88(6):618-29. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.04.004.

Female genital cutting: an evidence-based approach to clinical management for the primary care physician.

Hearst AA, Molnar AM.

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.

ABSTRACT

The United States has more than 1.5 million immigrants from countries in Africa and the Middle East where female genital cutting (FGC) is known to occur. Often, FGC occurs in infancy and childhood in the countries where it is practiced, but patients of any age can present with complications. Lack of understanding of this common problem can potentially alienate and lower quality of care for this patient population. We provide an introduction to the practice of FGC and practice guidelines for the primary care physician. We reviewed original research, population-based studies, and legal research from PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL plus, PsycINFO, and Legal Trac. The terms searched included female genital cutting, female genital circumcision, and female genital mutilation alone and with the term complications or health consequences; no limit on date published. Legal databases were searched using the above terms, as well as international law and immigration law. Editorials and review articles were excluded. This review discusses the different types of FGC, important cultural considerations for physicians caring for patients with FGC, the common early and late medical complications and their management, and psychosocial issues associated with FGC. Current laws pertaining to FGC are briefly reviewed, as well as implications for patients seeking asylum status in the United States because of FGC. Finally, the article presents evidence-based, culturally sensitive approaches to discussions of FGC with girls and women for whom this is an issue.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Female genital mutilation: classification and management.

Nurs Stand. 2007 Oct 24-30;22(7):43-9; quiz 50.

Female genital mutilation: classification and management.

Bikoo M.

Elizabeth Garrett Anderson and Obstetric Hospital, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London. maligaye.bikoo@uclh.nhs.uk

ABSTRACT

Female genital mutilation is a deeply rooted cultural tradition observed primarily in Africa and among certain communities in the Middle East and Asia. It has considerable health consequences. Women from the practising communities are increasingly seen within healthcare settings but few healthcare professionals are trained to treat their specific healthcare needs.

There is no link to view this article online.

Rethinking the history of female circumcision and clitoridectomy: American medicine and female sexuality in the late nineteenth century.

J Hist Med Allied Sci. 2008 Jul;63(3):323-47. Epub 2007 Dec 9.

Rethinking the history of female circumcision and clitoridectomy: American medicine and female sexuality in the late nineteenth century.

Rodriguez SW.

001 Wendover Avenue, Lincoln, Nebraska 68502, USA. sarahbeth3001@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, there was one kind of female orgasm and it was clitoral; there was also only one kind of healthy sexual instinct for a woman and it was for penetrative sex with her husband. When a woman behaved outside of this normality-by masturbating or by not responding to her husband’s affections-her sexual instinct was seen as disordered. If healthy women, then, were believed only to be sexual within the marital embrace, what better way to explain these errant behaviors than by blaming the clitoris, an organ seen as key to female sexual instinct? Doctors corrected a clitoris in an unhealthy state using one of four surgeries-removing smegma or adhesions between the clitoris and its hood, removing the hood (circumcision), or removing the clitoris (clitoridectomy)-in order to correct a woman’s sexual instinct in an unhealthy state. Their approach to clitoral surgery, at least as revealed in published medical works, was a cautious one that respected the importance of clitoral stimulation for healthy sexuality while simultaneously recognizing its role as cause and symptom in cases of insanity that were tied to masturbation.

This article can be accessed in this LINK.

Time will tell.

J R Soc Med. 2008 Dec;101(12):609-10. doi: 10.1258/jrsm.2008.08k031. FREE

Time will tell.

Starin D.

University College London Gower Street, London, UK. e.starin@ucl.ac.uk

EXTRACT

…Young girls walk along the paths carrying even younger children on their backs and small bundles of fire wood on their heads, practising for their future roles. Up here in the now-green rainy season fields, it is very clear that women are women and girls are women in waiting. And like their mothers and grandmothers and aunts and older sisters and 140 million other girls and women worldwide, most of these young girls will be circumcised. Because no formal studies have been done, it is difficult to estimate how many females in The Gambia have been circumcised. Rough estimates run from 68% to 93%.

This letter can be accessed for free in this LINK

[Sexual mutilations through ages]

Rev Med Brux. 2012 Nov-Dec;33(6):556-61.

[Sexual mutilations through ages]. [Article in French]

Androutsos G, Karamanou M, Tsigris C, Liakakos T, Stamboulis E, Lykouras E.

Service d’Histoire de la Médecine, Hôpital Laiko.

ABSTRACT

Among the ethnic mutilations (volunteer mutilations performed for religious, aesthetic, moral or hygienic purposes), genital mutilation (circumcision, castration, total emasculation, infibulation, excision, etc.) have always fascinated the human mind and are the subject of our historical overview.

No link to view this article online.

Female genital cutting and other intra-vaginal practices: implications for TwoDay Method use.

J Biosoc Sci. 2012 Sep;44(5):631-5.

Female genital cutting and other intra-vaginal practices: implications for TwoDay Method use.

Aksel S, Sinai I, Yee KA.

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

ABSTRACT

This report examines the implications of female genital cutting and other intra-vaginal practices for offering the TwoDay Method® of family planning.This fertility awareness-based method relies on the identification of cervicovaginal secretions to identify the fertile window. Female genital cutting and traditional vaginal practices, such as the use of desiccants, may affect the presence or absence of secretions and therefore the woman’s perception of her fertility. These issues and their implications for service delivery of the method are discussed.

There is no link to view this article online.