Tag Archives: Interview

Work consisting of a conversation with an individual regarding his or her background and other personal and professional details, opinions on specific subjects posed by the interviewer, etc.

The cultural context of the Sierra Leonean Mende woman as patient.

 J Transcult Nurs. 2010 Jul;21(3):228-36. doi: 10.1177/1043659609358781.

The cultural context of the Sierra Leonean Mende woman as patient.

Kallon I, Dundes L.

Department of Sociology, McDaniel College, 2 College Hill, Westminster, MD 21157, USA.


This article provides a clinically pertinent overview of Sierra Leonean immigrants, a growing patient population that most health care workers know little about. The focus is on Sierra Leonean Mende women and the relevance of their cultural perspective to clinical care. A literature review and interview responses from seven Sierra Leoneans are the sources of data. Immigrants from Sierra Leone are coming from a country that since the late 1990s has been ranked at the bottom of the United Nations’ Human Development Index. Practitioner knowledge of cultural norms such as female genital mutilation and discomfort with opposite sex health practitioners can improve cross-cultural interactions in the health arena. Given that most clinicians are unfamiliar with this unique patient population, this article provides background information including special
attention to medically relevant aspects of the Sierra Leonean cultural milieu that will enhance the rapport between health care workers and these patients.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

[Female genital mutilation. Women’s point of view]

Gynecol Obstet Fertil. Nov 2001 29(11): 824–828

[Mutilations génitales rituelles féminines. La parole aux femmes] [Article in french]

[Female genital mutilation. Women’s point of view]

Allag F, Abboud P, Mansour G, Zanardi M, Quéreux C


Female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered as the most dangerous custom still ritually practised and 2 million girls undergo the ordeal each year. This practice is anchored and fixed firmly in numerous African people’s culture and Western countries are confronted to it through African immigrants. In order to understand the justifications and the consequences of FGM we interviewed 14 genitally mutilated African women living in France. Unfortunately and despite the conscious knowledge of consequences and absurd side of such practice, yet it seems to be perpetuated over the descendants. Educational approach is the best solution to fight female genital mutilation fixed firmly in numerous African people’s culture.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Intergenerational attitude changes regarding female genital cutting in Nigeria.

J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011 Nov;20(11):1655-61. Epub 2011 Sep 15.

Intergenerational attitude changes regarding female genital cutting in Nigeria.

Alo OA, Gbadebo B.

Department of Sociology, Adekunle Ajasin University , Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria. bumssy2004@yahoo.com


BACKGROUND: The practice of female genital cutting (FGC) is widespread in Nigeria and varies from one ethnic group to another. In 1994, Nigeria joined members of the 47th World Health Assembly in a resolution to eliminate the practice, and since then, several steps has been taken to achieve this objective.

METHODS: Nigeria joined members of the 47th World Health Assembly sixteen years ago in a resolution to eliminate female genital mutilation. This study uses data from 420 women aged 15?49 years who had at least one surviving daughter to investigate changes in FGC prevalence among mothers and daughters. The sample was systematically selected through stratified random sampling across the six states of southwest Nigeria. Focus group discussion, and an in-depth interview with fourteen women considered to be specialist in FGC were also held to compliment data generated from the interview.

RESULTS: The analysis indicated an FGC prevalence rate of 75% and 71% for mothers and daughters, respectively. It further indicated that the practice is rooted in tradition despite the fact that 52% of the respondents are aware of the health hazards of FGC. Educated mothers were found to be less likely to favor the cutting of their daughters.

CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that educational campaigns aimed toward parents should be intensified. Legal recourse, prohibition of operations, improvement in women’s status, and sex education are also suggested as means of eradicating the practice.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Dynamics of change in the practice of female genital cutting in Senegambia: testing predictions of social convention theory.

Soc Sci Med. 2011 Oct;73(8):1275-83. Epub 2011 Aug 26.

Dynamics of change in the practice of female genital cutting in Senegambia: testing predictions of social convention theory.

Shell-Duncan B, Wander K, Hernlund Y, Moreau A.

University of Washington, Department of Anthropology, Box 353100, Seattle, WA 98195-3100, United States. bsd@u.washington.edu


Recent reviews of intervention efforts aimed at ending female genital cutting (FGC) have concluded that progress to date has been slow, and call for more efficient programs informed by theories on behavior change. Social convention theory, first proposed by Mackie (1996), posits that in the context of extreme resource inequality, FGC emerged as a means of securing a better marriage by signaling fidelity, and subsequently spread to become a prerequisite for marriage for all women. Change is predicted to result from coordinated abandonment in intermarrying groups so as to preserve a marriage market for uncircumcised girls. While this theory fits well with many general observations of FGC, there have
been few attempts to systematically test the theory. We use data from a three year mixed-method study of behavior change that began in 2004 in Senegal and The Gambia to explicitly test predictions generated by social convention theory.
Analyses of 300 in-depth interviews, 28 focus group discussions, and survey data from 1220 women show that FGC is most often only indirectly related to marriageability via concerns over preserving virginity. Instead we find strong evidence for an alternative convention, namely a peer convention. We propose that being circumcised serves as a signal to other circumcised women that a girl or woman has been trained to respect the authority of her circumcised elders and is  worthy of inclusion in their social network. In this manner, FGC facilitates the  accumulation of social capital by younger women and of power and prestige by elder women. Based on this new evidence and reinterpretation of social convention
theory, we suggest that interventions aimed at eliminating FGC should target women’s social networks, which are intergenerational, and include both men and women. Our findings support Mackie’s assertion that expectations regarding FGC are interdependent; change must therefore be coordinated among interconnected members of social networks.

Published by Elsevier Ltd.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Somali immigrant women’s perceptions of cesarean delivery and patient-provider communication surrounding female circumcision and childbirth in the USA.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011 Dec;115(3):227-30. Epub 2011 Sep 19.

Somali immigrant women’s perceptions of cesarean delivery and patient-provider communication surrounding female circumcision and childbirth in the USA.

Ameresekere M, Borg R, Frederick J, Vragovic O, Saia K, Raj A.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA. maithri@post.harvard.edu

OBJECTIVE: To explore perceptions of cesarean delivery and patient-provider communication surrounding female circumcision and childbirth through interviews with Somali women residing in the USA. METHODS: Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 23 Somali immigrant women living in Boston who had given birth in the USA and Africa. Interviews asked about birth experiences in the USA and Africa, as well as norms and attitudes surrounding childbirth practices. Interview transcripts were coded and themes identified through an iterative process. RESULTS: Participants were aged 25-52 years and had been living in the USA for an average of 7 years. All women had experienced circumcision. Five women had undergone a cesarean delivery. Women feared having a cesarean because of their perception that it could result in death or disability. Women also highlighted that providers in the USA rarely discussed female circumcision or how it could affect childbirth experiences. CONCLUSIONS: Previous experiences and cultural beliefs can affect how Somali immigrant women understand labor and delivery practices in the USA and can explain why some women are wary of cesarean delivery. Educating providers and encouraging patient-provider communication about cesarean delivery and female circumcision can ease fears, increase trust, and improve birth experiences for Somali immigrant women in the USA.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes to female genital mutilation (FGM) in Shao community of Kwara State, Nigeria.

Int Q Community Health Educ. 2006-2007;27(4):337-49.

Knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes to female genital mutilation (FGM) in Shao community of Kwara State, Nigeria.

Amusan OA, Asekun-Olarinmoye EO.

Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Nigeria.


To determine the level of knowledge, belief, and assess the attitude to female genital mutilation (FGM) and its complications in Shao community, Nigeria, a cross-sectional descriptive study with a health education intervention was used. A majority of respondents (99.5%) understood female circumcision to mean cutting off parts of the female genitals. There was a high level of knowledge regarding most of the complications of FGM as more than 50% of respondents knew at least four complications of FGM. Awareness of the global anti-FGM campaign was also high (78.8%). The most common reasons proffered for the practice of FGM were based on tradition or religion. Paternal grandfathers (50.0%) and fathers (21.0%) were cited as decision makers in the family most often responsible for requesting FGM. Post-intervention results showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of respondents who know more complications of FGM and who have no intention of circumcising future female children. Despite a high level of knowledge regarding the complications of FGM and a high level of awareness of the global campaign against it, there still exists a high prevalence of practice of FGM in this community. FGM remains a pressing human rights and public health issue. It is our recommendation that this health education intervention strategy be replicated nationwide especially using mass media.

This article can be purchased in this LINK