Tag Archives: Iran

Sexual Function, Mental Well-being and Quality of Life among Kurdish Circumcised Women in Iran.

FREEIran J Public Health. 2017 Sep;46(9):1265-1274.

Sexual Function, Mental Well-being and Quality of Life among Kurdish Circumcised Women in Iran.

Daneshkhah F, Allahverdipour H, Jahangiri L, Andreeva T

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation is an intentional inhumane procedure that threatens girls and women’s health. It is especially widespread in developing countries due to cultural, traditional and religious preferences. The aim of the current study was to investigate how circumcision affects women’s sexual function. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the urban and rural area of Piranshahr County, Iran, in 2015 among convenience samples of 200 women, 15-49 yr old, who were applying to health care centers for receiving routine health care services. Data collection was conducted with the use of a self-administered written questionnaire to assess female sexual function, mental well-being, and quality of life. RESULTS: Significant differences were found between circumcised and non-circumcised women in total score of female sexual function index (FSFI) in domains of desire, arousal, vaginal moisture, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain [(P<0.001), MD(95%CI)=5.64(3.64 to 7.64)] and based on Hotelling’s T-square, significant differences were found in dimensions of quality of life and FSFI. CONCLUSION: The revealed sexual dysfunction among mutilated women gives ground to require that public health systems take actions aimed at implementing special sexual education program to improve sexual functions of mutilated women and changing beliefs and social norms in the community level.

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Effect of female genital mutilation/cutting on sexual functions.

Sex Reprod Healthc. 2016 Dec;10:3-8. doi: 10.1016/j.srhc.2016.07.002. Epub 2016 Jul 28.

Effect of female genital mutilation/cutting on sexual functions.

Biglu MH, Farnam A, Abotalebi P, Biglu S, Ghavami M

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) or female circumcision is the procedure of eliminating some or all parts of the external female genitalia. FGM/C is carried out by traditional circumcisers. They usually use cutting tools like a blade or straight-razor. Although FGM/C is well described in the African continent and some Arabic countries, data from Iran are scarce.

OBJECTIVES: The major objective of this current study was to investigate the effects of FGM/C on the female sexual function of married women compared to the non-circumcised women in the Kurdistan province of Iran.

METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in a sample of 280 married women (140 circumcised-women and 140 non-circumcised-women) who referred to the healthcare centers for vaccination, midwifery, or family planning services. Participants were requested to complete the Persian-translated version of the Female Sexual Function Index.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The total score of the FSFI and its individual domains.

RESULTS: Of the circumcised women, 51.4% reported circumcision procedures before the age of 3 years. Religion motivation (53.6%) was mentioned as the most important factor for the family leading to FGM/C. Almost all operations were performed by traditional circumcisers. Non-circumcised women had significantly higher Persian-FSFI total score (25.3 ± 4.34) compared to the circumcised women (17.9 ± 5.39).

CONCLUSION: Sexual function in women with FGM/C is adversely altered. In Kurdistan province women, FGM/C is associated with reduction of scores of Persian-FSFI on all domain scores. Education in general and informing the people that FGM/C is not a religious Hadith certainly would have a great impact on the suffering of the women from FGM/C as well as the level of “desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain in the sexual function of women”.

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Epidemiology, Regional Characteristics, Knowledge, and Attitude Toward Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting in Southern Iran

J Sex Med. 2015 Jul;12(7):1577-83. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12938. Epub 2015 Jul 2.
Epidemiology, Regional Characteristics, Knowledge, and Attitude Toward Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting in Southern Iran
Dehghankhalili M, Fallahi S, Mahmudi F, Ghaffarpasand F, Shahrzad ME, Taghavi M, Fereydooni Asl M
ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), also known as female circumcision, is an ancient traditional procedure that involves partial or total removal of the female external genitalia for nonmedical reasons. Although it is well described in African and some Arabic countries, data from Iran are scarce. AIM: To describe the epidemiology, regional characteristics, knowledge, and attitude toward FGM/C in Southern Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted during a 36-month period from 2010 to 2013 in Hormozgan, a southern province of Iran near the Persian Gulf. We included 780 women in six major rural areas of the province who referred to healthcare centers for vaccination, midwifery, or family planning services. All participants underwent complete pelvic examination to determine the type of FGM. The questionnaire consisted of several sections such as demographic and baseline characteristics, and two self-report sections addressing the knowledge and attitude toward FGM/C and its complications. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics including age, educational level, marital status, religion, and nationality were the independent variables. RESULTS: Among the participants, 535 (68.5%) had undergone FGM/C. FGM/C was associated with higher age (P = 0.002), Afghan nationality (P = 0.003), Sunni Islam as religion (P = 0.019), illiteracy (P < 0.001), and family history of FGM/C in mother (P < 0.001), sister (P < 0.001), and grandmother (P < 0.001). Ancient traditions in the area (57.1%) were mentioned as the most important factor leading to FMG/C. Urinary tract infection was the most common reported complication (60.4%). CONCLUSION: FGM/C is a common practice in rural areas of Southern Iran. It is associated with increased age, illiteracy, Sunni Islam religion, Afghan nationality, and positive family history. Lack of knowledge toward FGM/C is the main cause of its high prevalence and continuation in the area. Dehghankhalili M, Fallahi S, Mahmudi F, Ghaffarpasand F, Shahrzad ME, Taghavi M, and Fereydooni Asl M. Epidemiology, regional characteristics, knowledge, and attitude toward female genital mutilation/cutting in Southern Iran.