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[Female sexual dysfunctions: myths, realities and perspectives].

Encephale. 2010 Oct;36(5):357-8. Epub 2010 Jan 27.

[Female sexual dysfunctions: myths, realities and perspectives].

[Article in French]

Douki Dedieu S.

No abstract is available for this article.

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Moolaade.

Psychoanal Rev. 2007 Dec;94(6):967-74.

Moolaade.

Teitelbaum S.

steft@dtsoft.com

“The Moolaade”, protection and sanctuary, is a ritual symbolized by a multicolored piece of rope…

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A step forward for opponents of female genital mutilation in Egypt

Lancet. 1997 jan;349(9045)129 – 130

A step forward for opponents of female genital mutilation in Egypt

Abd El Hadi A

Preview

In July, 1996, a decree by the Egyptian Minister of Health, Dr Ismail Sallam, prohibited physicians from performing female genital mutilation in private or public health facilities. Despite the decree’s short-comings, opponents of such mutilation view it as an important step. The decree reverses the decision of the previous Minister of Health who, in 1994, overturned a 35-year ban and permitted female genital mutilation to be done in public hospitals.

The fight against female genital mutilation is not new in Egypt. Activists have raised the issue since the late 1970s, and the main focus has been the health hazards associated with female genital mutilation. However, in 1994, with the establishment of the Task Force Against Female Genital Mutilation, such opposition coalesced into a national movement, which has brought a new human rights perspective to the debate. One activist said “Whether or not female genital mutilation leads to infection, shock, or death, it is a violation of women’s bodily integrity and their reproductive and sexual rights. It is a human rights violation even if it is done in hospitals under anaesthesia and in aseptic conditions”…

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Egypt takes decisive stance against female genital mutilation

Lancet. 1998 jan;351(9096):120

Egypt takes decisive stance against female genital mutilation

Chelala C

Preview

The upholding of a ban on female genital mutilation by Egypt’s highest court on Dec 28 is one of the most important steps against this practice taken so far in that country. The ruling by the supreme administrative court comes after many years of acrimonious debate between government officials and Islamic conservatives.

Female mutilation is not universally accepted by all Islamic scholars, many of whom think that it is not justified under Islamic doctrine. They note that female genital mutilation also occurs widely within Egypt’s Coptic Christian minority and probably dates from the time of the pharaohs, long before the advent of Islam. Supporters of the practice insist, however, that female genital mutilation is a cultural and religious issue, not a matter to be decided by the government or the courts. The recent decision, which cannot be appealed, overrides an earlier one by a lower court, which challenged a ban on the practice imposed by the Ministry of Health in 1996….

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Dissecting room: An enlightening guide to the health-care needs of Muslims

Lancet. 2001 july;358(9256):159

Dissecting room: An enlightening guide to the health-care needs of Muslims

Gamal I Serour

Caring for Muslim Patients
Aziz Sheikh, Abdul Rashid Gatrad
London: Radcliffe Medical Press, 2000
Pp 140. £17.95 ISBN-1857753720

Preview

…The hallmarks of this exploration of the interface between faith and health, are a restrained tone and a balance of topics and opinions. However, when the authors deal with certain practices such as female genital mutilation and contraception, they do not differentiate practices that relate to customs, tradition, and certain regional cultures from those that relate to Islamic instructions that should be followed by all observant Muslims, namely Sharia. I believe that when dealing with these controversial issues the authors should have emphasised the proper stance of Islam on these subjects. Doing so would enable health professionals in the UK and Europe to enlighten and inform their patients of what should be done when they are consulted by their patients and to dispel misconceptions about Islamic Sharia on these issues. This information would enable health professionals to provide the best medical service that conforms to the correct and documented beliefs of their Muslim patients…

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Religious Differences in Female Genital Cutting: A Case Study from Burkina Faso

Religious Differences in Female Genital Cutting: A Case Study from Burkina Faso

Hayford SR, Trinitapoli J

ABSTRACT

The relationship between religious obligations and female genital cutting is explored using data from Burkina Faso, a religiously and ethnically diverse country where approximately three-quarters of adult women are circumcised. Data from the 2003 Burkina Faso Demographic and Health Survey are used to estimate multilevel models of religious variation in the intergenerational transmission of female genital cutting. Differences between Christians, Muslims, and adherents of traditional religions are reported, along with an assessment of the extent to which individual and community characteristics account for religious differences. Religious variation in the intergenerational transmission of female genital cutting is largely explained by specific religious beliefs and by contextual rather than individual characteristics. Although Muslim women are more likely to have their daughters circumcised, the findings suggest the importance of a collective rather than individual Muslim identity for the continuation of the practice.

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Female genital mutilation : a teacher’s guide. [language: arabic]

Female genital mutilation : a teacher’s guide. [language: arabic]

World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean (Corp. Author)

Cairo; Ed. WHO EMRO: 2003. (146 pags)

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Islamic ruling on male and female circumcision.

Islamic ruling on male and female circumcision.

Muhammad Lutfi, Al-Sabbagh.

Alexandría; Ed. WHO EMRO, 1996. (46 pags)

SUMMARY

A collection of three brief scholarly treatises on male and female circumcision as viewed in the body of Islamic law. Noting the lack of doubt that male circumcision is a legitimate practice, the papers largely address common misunderstandings about the Islamic ruling in the case of daughters. In publishing these treatises, the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean aims to issue an authoritative and conclusive statement about the practice of female circumcision in Islamic countries. The first treatise proves with sufficient documented evidence that sayings or actions concerning female circumcision ascribed to the Prophet Muhammad have no authenticity. Noting the many risks involved in female circumcision, the scholar concludes that the practice “cannot be legitimate under Islamic law”, and further concludes that “female circumcision is neither required nor is it an obligation nor a sunna.” The second treatise, on “Pharaonic circumcision”, or infibulation. reviews the harmful effects of this practice and concludes that it is “an odious crime”. The final treatise confirms these views, concluding that “since female circumcision is not something required and no evidence from religious sources proves that it is either an obligation or a sunna, what remains is that it is an absolute damage that has no benefit”

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What do medical students in Alexandria know about female genital mutilation?

East Mediterr Health J. 2006;12 Suppl 2:S78-92.

What do medical students in Alexandria know about female genital mutilation?

Mostafa SR, El Zeiny NA, Tayel SE, Moubarak EI.

Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

We explored the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of 330 5th year medical students in Alexandria University towards female genital mutilation (FGM). The students’ basic knowledge about the practice of FGM was unsatisfactory. Students were unaware of the prevalence of FGM in Egypt and the practices and procedures of FGM. They were also poorly informed about the complications of FGM, and the ethical and legal aspects of FGM in the country. As a result, 52.0% of the students supported the continuation of the practice and 73.2% were in favour of its “medicalization” as a strategy for reducing the risks of FGM. Most students (86.9%) thought that the issue of FGM should be incorporated into the undergraduate medical curriculum.

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Inter-African Committee proceeding with tactful sensitization in fight against female circumcision.

Action Child. 1987;2(3):1-2.

Inter-African Committee proceeding with tactful sensitization in fight against female circumcision.

[No authors listed]

ABSTRACT

PIP: Despite tremendous health risks, female circumcision is a prevalent practice throughout Africa today, affecting 75,000,000 women and children in 26 different African countries. There are three types of female circumcision: infibulation, excision, and circumcision. The first procedure involves cutting off the whole clitoris, the labia minora and parts of the labia majora and stitching the vulva closed, leaving only a small opening for urination and menstruation. In excision, the prepuce, clitoris, and all or part of the labia minora are removed. Circumcision refers to the removal of the foreskin of the clitoris. Severe medical complications may arise from female circumcision. Immediate risks include hemorrhage, tetanus and septicemia infection from unsterile and crude cutting instruments, sexual mutilation, bleeding of adjacent organs, and shock. Long term complications include scars which shrink the genital passage resulting in blockage of menstruations, painful intercourse, and tearing of tissue and hemorrhaging during childbirth. Adverse psychological effects may also be experienced. The Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children employs gentle persuasion and gradual education (instead of government edit and external protest) in their fight against female circumcision. Since 1984, much progress has been made: Active national committees have been established in 11 African nations and have sponsored educational workshops, media talks, and training for nurses and traditional birth attendants. Those seeking to justify continuing female circumcision use moral and religious arguments, but powerful social pressures truly reinforce the practice. Uncircumcised women are still considered second-class citizens. In response, the Inter-African Committee has developed several educational materials and stands behind efforts to have female circumcision addressed in overall national policies of primary health care. They also urge the linkage of this issue with the Alma Ata Declaration of “Health For All By The Year 2000.”

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