Tag Archives: Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Sexual Anatomy and Function in Women With and Without Genital Mutilation: A Cross-Sectional Study

The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 2016;13 (2):226–237

Sexual Anatomy and Function in Women With and Without Genital Mutilation: A Cross-Sectional Study

Abdulcadir J, Botsikas D, Bolmont M Bilancioni A, Djema DA, Demicheli FB, Yaron M, Petignat P


Introduction: Female genital mutilation (FGM), the partial or total removal of the external genitalia for non-medical reasons, can affect female sexuality. However, only few studies are available, and these have significant methodologic limitations. Aim: To understand the impact of FGM on the anatomy of the clitoris and bulbs using magnetic resonance imaging and on sexuality using psychometric instruments and to study whether differences in anatomy after FGM correlate with differences in sexual function, desire, and body image. Methods: A cross-sectional study on sexual function and sexual anatomy was performed in women with and without FGM. Fifteen women with FGM involving cutting of the clitoris and 15 uncut women as a control group matched by age and parity were prospectively recruited. Participants underwent pelvic magnetic resonance imaging with vaginal opacification by ultrasound gel and completed validated questionnaires on desire (Sexual Desire Inventory), body image (Questionnaire d’Image Corporelle [Body Image Satisfaction Scale]), and sexual function (Female Sexual Function Index). Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcomes were clitoral and bulbar measurements on magnetic resonance images. Secondary outcomes were sexual function, desire, and body image scores. Results: Women with FGM did not have significantly decreased clitoral glans width and body length but did have significantly smaller volume of the clitoris plus bulbs. They scored significantly lower on sexual function and desire than women without FGM. They did not score lower on Female Sexual Function Index sub-scores for orgasm, desire, and satisfaction and on the Questionnaire d’Image Corporelle but did report significantly more dyspareunia. A larger total volume of clitoris and bulbs did not correlate with higher Female Sexual Function Index and Sexual Desire Inventory scores in women with FGM compared with uncut women who had larger total volume that correlated with higher scores. Conclusion: Women with FGM have sexual erectile tissues for sexual arousal, orgasm, and pleasure. Women with sexual dysfunction should be appropriately counseled and treated.

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Epidermoid cyst of the clitoris: an unusual cause of clitoromegaly in a patient without history of previous female circumcision.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2009 Oct; 22(5): e130-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2008.10.006. Epub 2009 Jul 3.

Epidermoid cyst of the clitoris: an unusual cause of clitoromegaly in a patient without history of previous female circumcision.

Anderson-Mueller BE, Laudenschlager MD, Hansen KA.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sanford School of Medicine of the University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe a rare cause of clitoromegaly. SETTING: University Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS: Patient. INTERVENTION: Magnetic resonance imaging, surgical resection of the cyst, clitoroplasty. RESULTS: Clitoroplasty with removal of the intradermal cyst and resolution of pain. CONCLUSIONS: A 17-year-old immigrant female presented with clitoral pain associated with clitoromegaly. Epidermoid cysts are usually solitary, asymptomatic, slow-growing, proliferations of epidermal cells that are commonly present on the neck, scalp, face, or trunk. There have only been four reported cases of epidermoid cysts of the clitoris not associated with female genital mutilation. The cyst in this case was removed by local excision, and the patient’s pain has resolved.

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