Educ Prim Care. 2016 Oct 28:1-4. [Epub ahead of print]
Educating about female genital mutilation.
Holmes V, Farrington R, Mulongo P
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is illegal in the UK but nevertheless practised in some immigrant communities. Effective educational approaches are required to inform policy and to direct resources, often in the voluntary sector. The opinions in this article arise from discussions with professionals and members of FGM-practising communities. We highlight the importance of sharing experiences and expertise across health and social care professionals as well as working in partnership with culturally sensitive Non-Governmental Organisations. Enlisting the support of men and religious leaders is crucial to breaking down barriers in male-dominated communities and dispelling myths about FGM being a ‘requirement’ of faith.
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Reprod Health Matters. 2016 May;24(47):118-25. doi: 10.1016/j.rhm.2016.06.002.
Female Genital Mutilation in Kenya: are young men allies in social change programmes?
Brown E, Mwangi-Powell F, Jerotich M, le May V
The Girl Summit held in 2014 aimed to mobilise greater effort to end Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) within a generation, building on a global movement which viewed the practice as a severe form of violence against women and girls and a violation of their rights. The UN, among others, endorse “comprehensive” strategies to end FGM, including legalistic measures, social protection and social communications. FGM is a sensitive issue and difficult to research, and rapid ethnographic methods can use existing relations of trust within social networks to explore attitudes towards predominant social norms which posit FGM as a social necessity. This study used Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation Research (PEER) to understand young men’s (18-25 years) perceptions of FGM, demand for FGM among future spouses, and perceptions of efforts to end FGM in a small town in West Pokot, Kenya, where FGM is reported to be high (between 85% to 96%). Twelve PEER researchers were recruited, who conducted two interviews with their friends, generating a total of 72 narrative interviews. The majority of young men who viewed themselves as having a “modern” outlook and with aspirations to marry “educated” women were more likely not to support FGM. Our findings show that young men viewed themselves as valuable allies in ending FGM, but that voicing their opposition to the practice was often difficult. More efforts are needed by multi-stakeholders – campaigners, government and local leaders – to create an enabling environment to voice that opposition.
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Afr J Reprod Health. 2006 Aug;10(2):37-47.
Males’ preference for circumcised women in northern Ghana.
Sakeah E, Beke A, Doctor HV, Hodgson AV.
Navrongo Health Research Centre, P.O. Box 114, Navrongo, Upper East Region, Ghana. firstname.lastname@example.org
Female genital mutilation (FGM) still remains one of the challenges facing women in many countries around the world. Efforts to eradicate the practice are on going but the results are still modest due to, among other things, ingrained cultural traditions that expose women to serious health consequences. In Africa where FGM is practiced in more than 28 countries, males have been found to perpetuate the practice. Using baseline data on FGM collected in 1998 by the Navrongo Health Research Centre in Ghana, we examined factors that influence males’ choice of marrying circumcised women. Results from regression analysis show that the illiterate and those who have been to primary school are more likely to prefer circumcised women than those with secondary and higher education. In addition, ethnicity and religion are also significant factors that influence males’ preference to marry circumcised women. A number of policy implications are discussed.
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International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2001 Aug;74(2):179-185
A community based study on the change of practice of female genital mutilation in a Sudanese village.
Almroth L, Almroth-Berggren V, Hassaneim OM, El Hadi N, Al-Said SSE, Hasan SSA, Lithell UB, Bergström S
Objective: To investigate the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM), among young and old parents. Methods: One hundred and twenty young parents and grandparents in a rural area in central Sudan were randomly selected for interviews carried out according to structured questionnaires with open answer possibilities. Results: All female respondents had undergone FGM. Of the young respondents, 44% had decided not to let their daughters undergo FGM. Young fathers were more involved in the decision process than previously known, especially when decisions were taken not to perform FGM. Tradition and social pressure were the main motives for performing FGM. Sexuality was an important aspect, mentioned both as motives for and against FGM. Religious belief and education level significantly affected to what extent FGM was practiced. Conclusion: This is the first community based study of FGM indicating a significant shift in practice between generations, young parents starting to question the value of FGM.
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