Tag Archives: Nigeria

Adolescent and Parental Reactions to Puberty in Nigeria and Kenya: A Cross-Cultural and Intergenerational Comparison.

FREEJ Adolesc Health. 2017 Oct;61(4S):S35-S41. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.03.014.

Adolescent and Parental Reactions to Puberty in Nigeria and Kenya: A Cross-Cultural and Intergenerational Comparison.

Bello BM, Fatusi AO, Adepoju OE, Maina BW, Kabiru CW, Sommer M, Mmari K.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This qualitative study assesses the cross-cultural and intergenerational reactions of young adolescents and parents to puberty in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, and Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Sixty-six boys and girls (aged 11-13 years) and their parents participated in narrative interviews conducted in English or local languages in two urban poor settings in Ile-Ife and Nairobi. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated, and uploaded into Atlas.ti software for coding and analysis. RESULTS: Reactions of parents and adolescents to puberty were similar across both sites, with few exceptions. Adolescents’ reactions to bodily changes varied from anxiety to pride. Adolescents generally tend to desire greater privacy; trying to hide their developing bodies from others. Most female adolescents emphasized breast development as compared with menstruation as the mark for pubertal initiation, while males emphasized voice changes. Among some ethnic groups in Nairobi, parents and adolescents view male circumcision as the hallmark of adolescence. Parents in both sites reported that with pubertal changes, adolescents tend to become arrogant and engaged in sexual relationships. Parents’ reported responses to puberty include: educating adolescents on bodily changes; counseling on sexual relationships; and, provision of sanitary towels to females. Parents’ responses are generally focused more on daughters. Approaches used by mothers in educating adolescents varied from the provision of factual information to fear/scare tactics. Compared with their own generation, parents perceive that their own children achieve pubertal development earlier, receive more puberty-related education from mothers, and are more exposed to and influenced by media and information technologies. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents’ responses to their pubertal bodily changes include anxiety, shame, and pride. Adolescents desire greater privacy. Parents’ reactions were broadly supportive of their children’s pubertal transition, but mothers’ communication approaches may sometimes be inappropriate in terms of using fear/scare tactics.

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Obstetric fistula and sociocultural practices in Hausa community of Northern Nigeria.

Women Birth. 2017 Mar 7. pii: S1871-5192(17)30076-8. doi: 10.1016/j.wombi.2017.02.009. [Epub ahead of print]

Obstetric fistula and sociocultural practices in Hausa community of Northern Nigeria.

Amodu OC, Salami B, Richter S.

ABSTRACT 

BACKGROUND: Obstetric Fistula is a childbirth injury that disproportionately affects women in sub-Saharan Africa. Although poverty plays an important role in perpetuating obstetric fistula, sociocultural practices has a significant influence on susceptibility to the condition. AIM: This paper aims to explore narratives in the literature on obstetric fistula in the context of Hausa ethno-lingual community of Northern Nigeria and the potential role of nurses and midwives in addressing obstetric fistula. DISCUSSION: Three major cultural practices predispose Hausa women to obstetric fistula: early marriages and early child bearing; unskilled birth attendance and female circumcision and sociocultural constraints to healthcare access for women during childbirth. There is a failure to implement the International rights of the girl child in Nigeria which makes early child marriage persist. The Hausa tradition constrains the decision making power of women for seeking health care during childbirth. In addition, there is a shortage of nurses and midwives to provide healthcare service to women during childbirth. CONCLUSION: To improve health access for women, there is a need to increase political commitment and budget for health human resource distribution to underserved areas in the Hausa community. There is also a need to advance power and voice of women to resist oppressive traditions and to provide them with empowerment opportunities to improve their social status. The practice of traditional birth attendants can be regulated and the primary health care services strengthened.

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The relation of female circumcision to sexual behavior in Kenya and Nigeria

Women Health. 2016 Jun 29:1-18. [Epub ahead of print]

The relation of female circumcision to sexual behavior in Kenya and Nigeria.

Mpofu S, Odimegwu C, De Wet N, Adedini S, Akinyemi J

ABSTRACT

One of the reasons for the perpetuation of female circumcision is that it controls female sexuality. In this study, the authors examined the relationship between female circumcision and the sexual behavior of women in Kenya and Nigeria. Data on women who were aware of circumcision and were circumcised were extracted from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey of 2008-09 as well as the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008. The sample size was 7,344 for Kenya and 16,294 for Nigeria. The outcome variables were age at first intercourse and total lifetime number of sexual partners. The study hypothesis was that women who were circumcised were less likely to have initiated sex early and to have only one sex partner. Cox proportional hazards regression and Poisson regression were used to examine the relations of female circumcision and other selected variables to sexual behavior. No association was observed between female circumcision and the outcomes for sexual behavior of women in Kenya and Nigeria. The argument of sexual chastity is insufficient to sustain the perpetuation of female circumcision.

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Female circumcision in Nigeria and attitudes towards its discontinuation

Afr J Med Med Sci. 2015 Dec;44(4):343-54.

Female circumcision in Nigeria and attitudes towards its discontinuation.

Gbadebo BM, Afolabi RF, Adebowale AS

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Female Circumcision (FC) is a harmful traditional practice and remains a public health problem particularly in the era of HIV/AIDS. Aside its numerous health implications, it can cause infertility, complications in childbirth and increased risk of newborn deaths. FC is widely practised in Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: The study assessed the level of FC, daughters’ circumcision and attitude towards discontinuation of the practice among women of reproductive age. METHODS: Data were extracted from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic Health and Survey. Data were analysed using Chi-square and binary logistic regression models (á = 0.05). RESULTS: Among the respondents, prevalence of FC was 49.2% with 30.6% having circumcised their daughters and 25.8% wishing the practice to continue. About 56% of circumcised women also circumcised their daughters whereas only 2.9% of uncircumcised women circumcised their daughters. Approximately 69.8% of women who had circumcised their daughters would like FC to continue compared to 8.8% of those who never circumcised any of their daughters. The likelihood of FC was higher (OR = 2.07; C.I = 1.85-2.30) among Moslems compare to Christians. Igbo women were less likely to discontinue FC compared to women of Hausa/Fulani ethnic group despite controlling for the confounding variables (OR = 0.57; C.I = 0.35-0.91). CONCLUSION: Female circumcision is still practiced in all parts of Nigeria and a high proportion of women reported that the practice should continue. There is need to intensify efforts on the campaign against female circumcision in Nigeria.

Attitudes to female genital mutilation/cutting among male adolescents in Ilorin, Nigeria

S Afr Med J. 2016 Jul 4;106(8):822-3. doi: 10.7196/SAMJ.2016.v106i8.10124.

Attitudes to female genital mutilation/cutting among male adolescents in Ilorin, Nigeria

Adeniran AS, Ijaiya MA, Fawole AA, Balogun OR, Adesina KT, Olatinwo AW, Olarinoye AO, Adeniran PI

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The central role of males in female reproductive health issues in patriarchal societies makes them an important group in the eradication of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). OBJECTIVE: To determine knowledge about and attitudes to FGM/C among male adolescents, and their preparedness to protect their future daughters from it. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among male adolescent students in Ilorin, Nigeria. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire after consent had been obtained from them or their parents. Statistical analysis was with SPSS version 20.0 (IBM, USA). A p-value of <0.05 was taken as significant. RESULTS: Of 1 536 male adolescents (mean age 15.09 (standard deviation 1.84) years, range 14 – 19), 1 184 (77.1%) were aware of FGM/C, 514 (33.5%) supported female circumcision, 362 (23.6%) would circumcise their future daughters, 420 (27.3%) were of the opinion that FGM/C had benefits, mostly as a necessity for womanhood (109, 7.1%), and 627 (40.8%) perceived it as wickedness against females; 546 (35.5%) were aware of efforts to eradicate FGM/C, and 42.2% recommended education as the most important intervention to achieve this. CONCLUSION: Education and involvement in advocacy may transform male adolescents into agents for eradication of FGM/C.

Gender-Based Domestic Violence against Children: Experiences of Girl-Children in Nigeria

Journal of Psychology in Africa, 2009, 19(1), 107-111

Gender-Based Domestic Violence against Children: Experiences of Girl-Children in Nigeria

Esere MO, Idowu AI, Omotosho JA

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the dynamics of gender-based domestic violence against children in Nigeria. This qualitative study explored the experiences of 20 purposively selected girl-children (age range = 12 to 15 years) from two SOS Children’s Village who have been victims of Domestic Violence (DV). Qualitative data on DV experiences and associated factors were collected through 6 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Physical violence was reported by 90% of the participants; psychological abuse by 80% and violent sexual abuse (rape) by 10%. Major factors associated with last episode of DV experiences included: inability to finish selling wares that were being hawked, late preparation of food, getting home late from the market, burning of the employer’s cloth while ironing, refusal to be genitally cut and refusal to be raped by the man of the house. Self-reported consequences of DV by victims included amongst others: constant headaches (30%) physical injury (25%), sleep disturbances (20%), excessive fear and anxiety (10%), hatred for men (10%) and suicidal ideation (5%). These findings suggest that DV may be playing significant but salient role in the poor state of health of Nigerian children and effective intervention processes at all levels are needed to address it.

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Perception and attitude of pregnant women in a rural community north-west Nigeria to female genital mutilation

Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2014 Sep 21. [Epub ahead of print]

Perception and attitude of pregnant women in a rural community north-west Nigeria to female genital mutilation.

Ashimi AO, Amole TG.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nigeria has the highest absolute number of residents who have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM) and most are carried out during infancy; however most reports on FGM are from urban based facilities hence we sought to know the perception and attitude of pregnant women residing in a rural community in northern Nigeria to FGM.

METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional study utilized a pretested structured interviewer administered questionnaire to assess the types of FGM known, reasons for performing it and willingness to support or perform FGM among 323 pregnant women attending antenatal care in two different health facilities.

RESULTS: Of the 323 respondents, 256 (79.3 %) were aware of the practice and the common varieties of FGM known to them were Gishiri cut in 137 (53.5 %) and Angurya cut 113 (44.1). The notable reasons for carrying out FGM in the community were tradition 88 (34.4 %), to ease difficulty in childbirth 69 (26.9 %) and better marriage prospect in 55 (21.5 %). Of the respondents that were aware of FGM; 100 (39.1 %) have experienced it and 55 (21.5 %) of those aware of it would subject their daughters to the procedure. There was statistically significant association between willingness to mutilate daughters by the respondents type of education (p = 0.014) and the type of facility they were receiving antenatal care (p = 0.001).

CONCLUSION: FGM is prevalent in this community with Gishiri cut being the commonest variety. It is often associated with difficult childbirth and many women would subject their daughters to this practice. Female education and empowerment is crucial to discontinuation of this practice.

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A multicentre study on knowledge and attitude of nurses in northern Nigeria concerning female genital mutilation

Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2014 Apr;19(2):134-40. doi: 10.3109/13625187.2014.885940. Epub 2014 Mar 6.

A multicentre study on knowledge and attitude of nurses in northern Nigeria concerning female genital mutilation.

Ashimi A, Aliyu L, Shittu M, Amole T.

ABSTRACT

Objective To determine the knowledge and attitude of nurses in northern Nigeria concerning female genital mutilation (FGM). Methods Cross-sectional study in which 350 nurses working in three tertiary health institutions in northern Nigeria were assessed, using a self-administered questionnaire, with regard to their knowledge of, and attitude to, FGM.

Results Two hundred and sixty-five respondents (76%) were female, 190 (54%) were married. Most (249; 71%) were Muslims, and 228 (65%), of Hausa/Fulani ethnicity. Their ages ranged from 18-60 years with a mean of 29.3 ± 8.9. Among the respondents, 318 (91%) had heard of FGM; of these 127 (40%) knew no particular type of FGM. Only 155 (49%) could identify ‘Angurya’ and ‘Gishiri’ cuts as forms of FGM. Two hundred and forty-five (77%), 231 (73%) and 200 (63%), respectively, identified haemorrhage; risk of HIV, hepatitis, and tetanus; and painful sexual intercourse as possible complications of FGM. Thirteen (4%) would perform it and also would have it done on their daughters.

Conclusion The nurses studied had a high level of awareness of FGM and a good general knowledge of complications associated with FGM. However, only half knew what ‘Angurya’ and ‘Gishiri’ cuts were. A few would perform FGM.

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Female genital mutilation and efforts to achieve Millennium Development Goals 3, 4, and 5 in southeast Nigeria.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2014 May;125(2):125-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2013.11.008. Epub 2014 Feb 8.

Female genital mutilation and efforts to achieve Millennium Development Goals 3, 4, and 5 in southeast Nigeria.

Lawani LO, Onyebuchi AK, Iyoke CA, Okeke NE.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM), the common forms of FGM, reasons for the practice, associated obstetric outcomes, and how these have affected efforts to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 3, 4, and 5 in southeast Nigeria.

METHODS: A prospective descriptive study of parturients in southeast Nigeria was conducted from January to December 2012. All primigravid women attending delivery services at 2 health institutions during the study period were recruited, examined, and classified using the 2008 WHO classification for FGM.

RESULTS: The mean age of the 516 participants was 27.24±4.80years and most (66.3%) had undergone FGM. Type II FGM was the most common form, accounting for 59.6% of cases. Most FGM procedures were performed in infancy (97.1%) and for cultural reasons (60.8%). Women who had undergone FGM had significantly higher risk for episiotomy, perineal tear, hemorrhage, cesarean delivery, neonatal resuscitation, fresh stillbirth/early neonatal death, and longer hospitalization, with higher risk ratios associated with higher degrees of FGM.

CONCLUSION: FGM is still a common practice in southeast Nigeria, where its association with adverse reproductive outcomes militates against efforts to achieve MDGs 3, 4, and 5.

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Perception and practice of female genital cutting in a rural community in southern Nigeria.

Afr J Reprod Health. 2012 Dec;16(4):132-9.FREE

Perception and practice of female genital cutting in a rural community in southern Nigeria.

Johnson OE, Okon RD.

Department of Community Health, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria. drjohnsonoe@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to determine the awareness and practice of FGC in a rural community in southern Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out among Ayadehe women in Itu, LGA Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Information obtained was analysed using SPSS version 17. A total of 218 respondents participated in the study. Majority, 215 (98.6%) were aware of the practice of FGC. Type 2 FGC was the commonest type reported by 71.2% of respondents. Prevalence of FGC was 92.7%. A total of 69.8% were circumcised at 6-12 years. Health complications experienced included excruciating pains, (36.6%), severe bleeding, (15.8%), and painful urination, (26.7%). Up to 53.5% were circumcised by traditional birth attendants. The belief that FGM should be discontinued increased with educational level. The practice of FGC was high in this community. Increased female education, community involvement and legislation are needed to reduce this practice.

This article can be accessed in this LINK.