Tag Archives: Outpatient Clinics/Hospital

Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.

The NHS displays absurd double standards on circumcision.

Nurs Stand. 2014 Jun 4;28(40):35. doi: 10.7748/ns.28.40.35.s46.

The NHS displays absurd double standards on circumcision.

Clark C.

I support the law in the UK against female genital mutilation (FGM) and the fact that staff in acute hospitals are now mandated to record information on a national database about women and children who have undergone FGM (News May 28).

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Female genital mutilation: Experience in a West London clinic.

J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007 May;27(4):416-9.

Female genital mutilation: Experience in a West London clinic.

Gordon H, Comerasamy H, Morris NH.


The Wellwoman African Clinic, Central Middlesex Hospital, London, UK. z.whitlock@imperial.ac.uk In 1997, a new clinic was established at the Central Middlesex Hospital to serve the needs of a mainly Somali population who had suffered genital mutilation in childhood. Between June 1997 and January 2005, 4,125 clinic attendances were recorded. A total of 215 reversals of circumcision were carried out (FGM 3), all on a day-care basis. In the majority of cases, an intact and undamaged clitoris was found under the scar tissue. The clinic staff were able to draw attention to cultural and religious issues which proved important in the medical management of these women. The experience of this clinic has shown that where there is a large immigrant population of women from the Horn of Africa, clinics such as this are efficient and cost-effective and encourage women to attend with a variety of health concerns. The clinic also encourages these women to take their health concerns seriously.

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Genital lesions complicating female genital cutting in infancy: a hospital-based study in south-east Nigeria.

Ann Trop Paediatr. 2007 Dec;27(4):285-90.

Genital lesions complicating female genital cutting in infancy: a hospital-based study in south-east Nigeria.

Ekenze SO, Ezegwui HU, Adiri CO.

Paediatric Surgical Unit, Department of Surgery, Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Nigeria. soekenze@yahoo.com


BACKGROUND: Despite the global outcry against female genital cutting (FGC), the practice continues in many African communities. The morbidity of this practice on the girl child deserves more attention.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the genital lesions complicating childhood FGC and the underlying factors that sustain this practice among the Igbos in south-east Nigeria.

METHODS: Prospective evaluation of girls with genital complications of FGC between January 2003 and June 2005 at the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, south-east Nigeria. The girls’ mothers were interviewed at presentation and subsequent visits to determine their perception and attitudes towards FGC.

RESULTS: The average age at presentation was 3.5 years (range 1-5) and the genital cutting procedures were performed 8-90 days after birth. The procedure was undertaken by traditional practitioners in 14 (66.7%) girls and by nurses in 7 (33.3%) girls. Twelve girls (57.1%) had type I genital cutting and nine (42.9%) type II. Inclusion clitoral dermoid cyst and labial fusion were the complications in 13 (61.9%) and eight (38.1%), respectively. Treatment involved complete excision of the cysts and operative division of the labial fusion. Post-operative complications were wound infection (5) and labial adhesion (2). With duration of admission ranging from 3 to 5 days, the average cost of managing each child was $120. Of the girls’ mothers, 15 (71.4%) had been educated to secondary level and 17 (80.1%) were aware of the campaign against FGC. Regrettably, all the mothers had genital cutting themselves during childhood and 13 (61.9%) stated that they would like to perpetuate the practice for socio-cultural reasons. Despite this, they all volunteered that FGC is enforced by the child’s paternal relations.

CONCLUSION: Childhood FGC contributes to appreciable morbidity among girls, a large proportion of whom are not managed in a hospital setting. The cost of managing these complications can be enormous, especially in low-resource settings. Girl child education to tertiary level and the involvement of traditional rulers and local decision-makers in the campaign against FGC might help to eradicate the practice.

This article can be accessed in this LINK.

Dispelling the myths and beliefs toward female genital cutting of woman: assessing general outpatient services at a tertiary health institution in Enugu state, Nigeria.

East Afr J Public Health. 2010 Mar;7(1):64-7.

Dispelling the myths and beliefs toward female genital cutting of woman: assessing general outpatient services at a tertiary health institution in Enugu state, Nigeria.

Ekwueme OC, Ezegwui HU, Ezeoke U.

Reproductive Health Unit, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria.

CONTEXT: The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) has continued because it is deeply entrenched in tradition and culture especially in developing countries where the victims are often its strongest proponents. This study aimed at using accurate information to dispel the traditional myths and beliefs about FGM among
METHODS: Using a before and after intervention evaluation research design, interviewer administered questionnaires were administered to a sample of 100 women drawn by systematic sampling from the General Outpatient Department of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital. Information’s on their knowledge,
attitude and behaviour towards FGM were elicited pre-and-post intervention.
RESULTS: Pre-intervention, knowledge of the respondents on the true meaning of FGM was 54% and that of the 6 complications enlisted on average was 22.2%. Seventy (70.0%) believed that FCM is good and should be continued based mainly on culture and tradition (85.7%). Among the 29(29.0%) respondents against FGM,
26(89.7%) and 24(82.8%) said it increases risk of HIV/AIDS and pregnancy complications respectively. Respondents displayed a high negative and stigmatizing attitude toward the uncircumcised women. Seventy-four (74.0%) said they are promiscuous. Additionally, 49% said they are shameful, 14% cursed/outcast while 66% would not recommend them for marriage. Post-intervention, 85% of the respondents now understood full meaning of FGM and  71.3% on the average knew the complications. While only 11% now support FGM, 83% were against the practice. The stigmatizing attitudes held against uncircumcised women decreased significantly from baseline to post-intervention as follows: promiscuous 74% to 22%, shameful 49% to 12%, outcast/cursed 14% to 2%, and not good for marriage from 66% to 19%. The differences in the baseline and post-intervention data on knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of the respondents toward FGM were statistically significant (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Educational intervention programme has been successful used to impact knowledge, change beliefs and negative attitudes of women toward FGM.

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New de-infibulation clinic for Royal Women’s in Melbourne.

Aust Nurs J. 2011 Apr;18(9):39.

New de-infibulation clinic for Royal Women’s in Melbourne.

Waters J.

Women’s Health Information Centre, Well Women’s Services, Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne.

No abstract is available for this article.

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