Tag Archives: Physical Examination

Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.

“A Somali girl is Muslim and does not have premarital sex. Is vaccination really necessary?” A qualitative study into the perceptions of Somali women in the Netherlands about the prevention of cervical cancer

Int J Equity Health. 2015 Aug 21;14(1):68. doi: 10.1186/s12939-015-0198-3. FREE

“A Somali girl is Muslim and does not have premarital sex. Is vaccination really necessary?” A qualitative study into the perceptions of Somali women in the Netherlands about the prevention of cervical cancer.

Salad J, Verdonk P, de Boer F, Abma TA

BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION: Participation in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and Papanicolaou Screening (Pap smears) is low among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands and hardly any information is available about the cervical cancer prevention methods of Somali women living in the diaspora. This qualitative study, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) and an intersectionality-based framework, explores the perceptions of Somali women living in the Netherlands regarding measures to prevent cervical cancer.

METHODS: Semi-structured interviews have been conducted with young Somali women aged 17-21 years (n = 14) and Somali mothers aged 30-46 years (n = 6). Two natural group discussions have been conducted with 12 and 14 Somali mothers aged 23-66 years. The collected data has been analyzed thematically for content.

RESULTS: In this study, we have identified perceived barriers to the use of preventive measures across three major themes: (1) Somali women and preventive healthcare; (2) Language, knowledge, and negotiating decisions; and (3) Sexual standards, culture, and religion. Many issues have been identified across these themes, e.g., distrust of the Dutch health care system or being embarrassed to get Pap smears due to Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and having a Dutch, male practitioner; or a perceived low susceptibility to HPV and cancer because of the religious norms that prohibit sex before marriage.

CONCLUSIONS: Current measures in the Netherlands to prevent women from developing cervical cancer hardly reach Somali women because these women perceive these kinds of preventative measures as not personally relevant. Dutch education strategies about cervical cancer deviate from ways of exchanging information within the Somali community. Teachers can provide culturally sensitive information to young Somali women in schools. For Somali mothers, oral education (e.g., poetry or theater) about the Dutch health care system and men’s roles in HPV transmission may be useful. An intersectional approach, grounded in the HBM, is recommended to promote equal access to preventive health care for Somali women.

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Simple questions can help nurses identify girls at risk of female genital mutilation.

Nurs Child Young People. 2015 Mar;27(2):7. doi: 10.7748/ncyp.27.2.7.s5.

Simple questions can help nurses identify girls at risk of female genital mutilation

Sprinks J

NURSES SHOULD have ‘professional curiosity’ and ask their patients simple questions to help them detect whether girls in their community are at risk of female genital mutilation (FGM).

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Female genital mutilation: what every paediatrician should know

Arch Dis Child. 2015 Mar 19. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2014-307234

Female genital mutilation: what every paediatrician should know

Creighton SM, Hodes D

ABSTRACT

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is almost always performed on children and consequently paediatricians should have a central role in the detection and prevention of FGM. FGM has no health benefits and can cause lifelong damage to physical and psychological health. Extensive migration of FGM practising communities means that FGM is now a global problem. Paediatricians worldwide need to be familiar with the identification and classification of FGM and its impact upon health as well as current trends in practice. However information about FGM is hampered by the secrecy surrounding the procedure and a lack of rigorous evidence based research. This review summarises what is currently known about the health aspects of FGM and how paediatricians should manage children with FGM in their clinical practice.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Supporting women after genital mutilation

Nurs Times. 2014 Apr 30-May 6;110(18):12-4.

Supporting women after genital mutilation.

Byrne A.

ABSTRACT

Female genital mutilation is a common practice in many cultures, and has a range of complications. Many women in the UK have undergone the procedure and many girls are at risk. This article discusses the types of FGM and its complications, and explains how nurses can identify those who have had or are at risk of FGM and either offer support or specialist referral.

This article can be accessed in this LINK.

‘Gosh’: A cross-cultural encounter with a Somali woman, a male interpreter and a gynecologist on female genital cutting/mutilation.

Patient Educ Couns. 2014 Aug 28. pii: S0738-3991(14)00363-2. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2014.08.014. [Epub ahead of print]

‘Gosh’: A cross-cultural encounter with a Somali woman, a male interpreter and a gynecologist on female genital cutting/mutilation.

Schuster S.

ABSTRACT

I saw the woman for the first time on the gynecological emergency at a Swiss University Women’s Hospital. She was referred for assessment of lower abdominal pain, which turned out to be a ‘cover-up’ for the subsequent case presentation. The 22-years old, married woman had a low proficiency in English and none in German, and was an asylum seeker from Somalia. The history and clinical examination for lower abdominal pain revealed no pathological results – but her female external genitalia presented an unforgettable finding I had never seen before during my clinical career in Switzerland and also in Cameroon.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Female genital mutilation and visual checks on schoolgirls.

Nurs Stand. 2013 Oct 2;28(5):34. doi: 10.7748/ns2013.10.28.5.34.s45.

Female genital mutilation and visual checks on schoolgirls.

Hopkins C.

EXTRACT

I am disappointed in the sweeping statements made by Bridget Ryan (Letters September 11) and her views about how to deal with and prevent female genital mutilation (FGM).

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Female genital mutilation among antenatal care and contraceptive advice attendees in Sweden.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87(7):716-22.

Female genital mutilation among antenatal care and contraceptive advice attendees in Sweden.

Litorp H, Franck M, Almroth L.

Division of International Health/IHCAR, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. helena.litorp@vgregion.se

OBJECTIVE: To explore knowledge of, attitudes toward and practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) among women originally from countries where FGM is customary attending antenatal care and contraceptive advice in Sweden. METHODS: Women in reproductive age living in Sweden who originate from countries where FGM is practiced coming for antenatal care or contraceptive advice at two maternity welfare centers in Stockholm were asked to participate. Interview administered questionnaires and gynecological examination were used for data collection. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Out of 49 women asked, 40 women agreed to participate, of whom 37 had undergone FGM. Most FGM operations had been performed by doctors or midwives. Half of the Muslim women said FGM was allowed by their religion. All women reporting to have undergone ‘sunna’, an allegedly mild form, had extensive damage to their genitals. At gynecological examination three cases of reinfibulation were detected, of which two had been performed after delivery in Sweden. Twenty-nine women had daughters and three had let their daughters undergo FGM, all of them before settling in Sweden. Problems related to delivery and sexual intercourse were the most commonly mentioned complications of FGM. CONCLUSIONS: The reliability of the self-reported form of FGM is low, which may have implications for research, interventions and health care. Although many women express negative attitudes toward FGM and know about serious complications, the religious justifications, the practice of FGM on daughters, reinfibulation on adults and medicalization of the practice indicate attitudes that favor of the continued practice of FGM.

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[Is genital examination of preschool girls offensive?] [Article in Norwegian]

Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2007 Sep 20;127(18):2402-4.

[Is genital examination of preschool girls offensive?]. [Article in Norwegian]

Gulla K, Myhre AK, Bratlid D

Barne- og ungdomsklinikken, St. Olavs Hospital, 7006 Trondheim. kari.gulla@hist.no

Diskusjonen omkring rutineundersøkelse av barns underliv er ikke av ny dato. Blant annet gikk den høyt i 1990-årene, den gang i kjølvannet av flere store overgrepssaker. Debatten har nå fått ny aktualitet – denne gang på grunn av en gryende bevissthet om at også jenter bosatt i Norge utsettes for kjønnslemlestelse. Etter vår mening er tiden nå moden for å vurdere saken i hele sin bredde, både ut fra de mange og dels nye utfordringer innen barnehelse og ikke minst i lys av ny kunnskap på området…

This article can be accessed in this LINK