Tag Archives: Preventive Health Services

Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.

Sexual counselling for treating or preventing sexual dysfunction in women living with female genital mutilation: A systematic review.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2017 Feb;136 Suppl 1:38-42. doi: 10.1002/ijgo.12049. Sexual counselling for treating or preventing sexual dysfunction in women living with female genital mutilation: A systematic review. 

Okomo U, Ogugbue M, Inyang E, Meremikwu MM.


BACKGROUND: Female sexual dysfunction is the persistent or recurring decrease in sexual desire or arousal, the difficulty or inability to achieve an orgasm, and/or the feeling of pain during sexual intercourse. Impaired sexual function can occur with all types of female genital mutilation (FGM) owing to the structural changes, pain, or traumatic memories associated with the procedure. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized studies into the effects of sexual counseling with or without genital lubricants on the sexual function of women living with FGM. SEARCH STRATEGY: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, African Index Medicus, SCOPUS, LILACS, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, and other databases were searched to August 2015. The reference lists of retrieved studies were checked for reports of additional studies, and lead authors contacted for additional data. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies of girls and women living with any type of FGM who received counselling interventions for sexual dysfunction were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: No relevant studies that addressed the objective of the review were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a comprehensive search, the authors could not find evidence of the effects of sexual counseling on the sexual function of women living with FGM. Studies assessing this intervention are needed.

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Interventions for healthcare providers to improve treatment and prevention of female genital mutilation: a systematic review

BMC Health Serv Res. 2016 Aug 19;16(1):409. doi: 10.1186/s12913-016-1674-1.FREE

Interventions for healthcare providers to improve treatment and prevention of female genital mutilation: a systematic review

Balfour J, Abdulcadir J, Say L, Hindin MJ


BACKGROUND: Studies on healthcare providers’ awareness, knowledge and attitudes regarding female genital mutilation (FGM) have shown a lack of awareness of the prevalence, diagnosis, and management of FGM. Our objective was to systematically review the literature on interventions improving healthcare providers’ capacities of prevention and treatment of FGM. METHODS: Systematic review of the published and grey literature on interventions aimed at improving healthcare providers’ capacities of prevention and treatment of FGM (1995-2015). Outcomes observed were knowledge and attitudes about FGM, medicalization, and prevention. RESULTS: Only two studies met our inclusion criteria. They reported on educational interventions aimed at increasing caregivers’ knowledge on FGM. One was conducted with 59 providers, in Mali; the other one with 11 certified nurse-midwives in the United States. The studies report basic statistics regarding the improvement of healthcare professionals’ knowledge, attitude on FGM and medicalization of the practice. Neither conducted multivariable analysis nor evaluated the training effects on the quality of the care offered, the clinical outcomes and the satisfaction of women attended, and prevention. CONCLUSION: As health care providers are essential in prevention and treatment of FGM, developing effective interventions is crucial.

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Health care of refugee women.

Aust Fam Physician. 2007 Mar;36(3):151-4.FREE

Health care of refugee women.

Costa D.

Womens Health Statewide, North Adelaide, Australia. danielac@chariot.net.au


BACKGROUND: Women refugees have endured major discrimination and poverty in their countries of origin or countries of displacement. This has had a major impact on their physical and psychological health. The experience of resettlement places a further burden on their health.

OBJECTIVE: This article aims to provide a simple approach to the health assessment and management of women refugees, taking into account specific issues related to migration and resettlement.

DISCUSSION: Because of the complexities of their realities related to gender, social and economic status, and premigration and resettlement experiences, women refugees need a multiplicity of health interventions. The identification of the major physical and psychological health issues with consideration of gender issues and premigration and resettlement experiences, represents more adequate basis for the assessment and management of the health care of women refugees.

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Female genital mutilation and public health: lessons from the British experience

Health Care for Women International. 1998 19(2) 119-129

Female genital mutilation and public health: lessons from the British experience

Elizabeth Thompson Ortiz


The author addresses the public health policy challenge posed by the increasing numbers of immigrant girls and women in the United States affected by female genital mutilation (FGM), a traditional ritual health practice in which part or all of the external genital structures are removed from females, usually during childhood. The practice is common today in 26 African nations and affects 100 to 126 million women and girls worldwide. The significant lifelong negative health impact of FGM has been documented. Recent developments in British domestic health and social policy are reviewed to provide insights. The definition of FGM, prevalence, health impact, and history of the practice are presented. Implications for the development of health and social services policies and programs in the United States are drawn.

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Estimating the number of women with female genital mutilation in Belgium.

Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2011 Aug;16(4):248-57. Epub 2011 May 11.

Estimating the number of women with female genital mutilation in Belgium.

Dubourg D, Richard F, Leye E, Ndame S, Rommens T, Maes S.

Institute of Tropical Medicine , Antwerp, Belgium. ddubourg@itg.be


OBJECTIVE: To estimate the number of women with female genital mutilation (FGM) living in Belgium, the number of girls at risk, and the target population of medical and social services (MSSs) concerned.

METHODS: Data about prevalence of FGM from the most recently published Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys were applied to females living in Belgium who migrated from countries where excision or infibulation are being practised, and to their daughters.

RESULTS: Amongst the 22,840 women and girls living in Belgium who are from a country concerned, 6,260 have ‘most probably already undergone a FGM’ (women born in the country of origin), and 1,975 are ‘at risk’ (second generation born in Belgium). The target population of MSSs comprises 1,190 girls less than five years old attending well-baby clinics, 1,690 girls aged 5-19 years attending preventive school health centres, 4,905 women 20-49 years old and 450 women over 50 years of age attending reproductive health services. The population of women concerned is unequally dispersed in Belgium and reflects the distribution of migrant settlement in the different provinces.

CONCLUSION: FGM in Belgium requires a more concerted approach in terms of prevention, and medical and social care. Accurate information about the distribution of women concerned should permit better planning of competent services.

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Female genital mutilation and its prevention: a challenge for paediatricians.

Eur J Pediatr. 2009 Jan;168(1):27-33. Epub 2008 Apr 25.

Female genital mutilation and its prevention: a challenge for paediatricians.

Jaeger F, Caflisch M, Hohlfeld P.

Service de Pédiatrie, Hôpital de Pourtalès, Rue de la Maladière 45, 2000, Neuchâtel, Switzerland. f.jaeger@gmx.ch


Female genital mutilation (FGM) is defined as an injury of the external female genitalia for cultural or non-therapeutic reasons. FGM is mainly performed in sub-Saharan and Eastern Africa. The western health care systems are confronted with migrants from this cultural background. The aim is to offer information on how to approach this subject. The degree of FGM can vary from excision of the prepuce and clitoris to infibulation. Infections, urinary retention, pain, lesions of neighbouring organs, bleeding, psychological trauma and even death are possible acute complications. The different long-term complications include the risk of reduced fertility and difficulties during labour, which are key arguments against FGM in the migrant community. Paediatricians often have questions on how to approach the subject. With an open, neutral approach and basic knowledge, discussions with parents are constructive. Talking about the newborn, delivery or traditions may be a good starting point. Once they feel accepted, they speak surprisingly openly. FGM is performed out of love for their daughters. We have to be aware of their arguments and fears, but we should also stress the parents’ responsibility in taking a health risk for their daughters. It is important to know the family’s opinion on FGM. Some may need support, especially against community pressure. As FGM is often performed on newborns or at 4-9 years of age, paediatricians should have an active role in the prevention of FGM, especially as they have repeated close contact with those concerned and medical consequences are the main arguments against FGM.

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