Transl Androl Urol. 2017 Apr;6(2):138-148. doi: 10.21037/tau.2016.12.01.
Female genital mutilation/cutting in Africa
Odukogbe AA, Afolabi BB, Bello OO, Adeyanju AS
Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice in which the external female genitalia is partially or totally incised or excised for a non-therapeutic reason, usually without the consent of the individual. FGM/C is common in Africa with varying prevalence in different countries, though the incidence is reducing because it is considered a human rights issue with tremendous advocacy for its elimination by mainly nongovernmental organizations. It is mainly underreported in many countries in Africa especially where it has been declared illegal. FGM/C is often performed by a nonmedical practitioner with the aim of fulfilling religious or cultural rites and sometimes for economic benefits with the resultant acute, intermediate and late complications. It is sometimes performed by medical practitioners when it is speciously believed that its medicalization reduces the complications associated with the practice. The sensitivity of FGM/C is amplified when compared to male circumcision and voluntary alterations of the female external genitalia like piercing and tattooing as similar practices. The magnitude of the physical and psychosocial consequences of FGM/C outweighs the presumed benefits of the procedures highlighting the need for improvement of the multiple preventive measures by all the stakeholders and in all the sectors.
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BMC Health Serv Res. 2016 Aug 19;16(1):409. doi: 10.1186/s12913-016-1674-1.
Interventions for healthcare providers to improve treatment and prevention of female genital mutilation: a systematic review
Balfour J, Abdulcadir J, Say L, Hindin MJ
BACKGROUND: Studies on healthcare providers’ awareness, knowledge and attitudes regarding female genital mutilation (FGM) have shown a lack of awareness of the prevalence, diagnosis, and management of FGM. Our objective was to systematically review the literature on interventions improving healthcare providers’ capacities of prevention and treatment of FGM. METHODS: Systematic review of the published and grey literature on interventions aimed at improving healthcare providers’ capacities of prevention and treatment of FGM (1995-2015). Outcomes observed were knowledge and attitudes about FGM, medicalization, and prevention. RESULTS: Only two studies met our inclusion criteria. They reported on educational interventions aimed at increasing caregivers’ knowledge on FGM. One was conducted with 59 providers, in Mali; the other one with 11 certified nurse-midwives in the United States. The studies report basic statistics regarding the improvement of healthcare professionals’ knowledge, attitude on FGM and medicalization of the practice. Neither conducted multivariable analysis nor evaluated the training effects on the quality of the care offered, the clinical outcomes and the satisfaction of women attended, and prevention. CONCLUSION: As health care providers are essential in prevention and treatment of FGM, developing effective interventions is crucial.
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Ginekol Pol. 2009 Feb;80(2):118-23.
[Female circumcision–a new issue for gynecologists practicing in the E.U. countries?]. [Article in Polish]
Rogowska-Szadkowska D, Niemiec T.
Zaklad Medycyny Rodzinnej i Pielegniarstwa Srodowiskowego Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Białymstoku. email@example.com
An increasing number of immigrants from countries practicing female genital mutilation (FGM) has begun to concern Europe as well. The aim of this article is to present recent medical data about FGM which, in the age of globalisation and migration of people, may become essential for gynaecologists working in Poland, but also those practising abroad.
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