Tag Archives: Research Support as Topic

Financial support of research activities.

Bibliometric analysis of literature on female genital mutilation: (1930 – 2015)

Reprod Health. 2016 Oct 10;13(1):130.FREE

Bibliometric analysis of literature on female genital mutilation: (1930 – 2015).

Sweileh WM

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a common harmful traditional practice in many communities in Africa and to a lesser extent in Middle East and other regions in the world. In order to better understand publishing on this topic, we conducted a bibliometric study on FGM/C. Bibliometric analyses can be used as an indicator of the extent of interaction of researchers, health authorities, and communities with a particular health issue.

METHODS: Scopus database was used to retrieve data on FGM/C. Keywords used were “female genital mutilation”, “female genital circumcision”, “female genital cutting” and “female circumcision”. Specifically, the number of publications, top productive countries and institutions, highly cited articles, citation analysis, co-authorships, international collaboration, role of African countries, top active authors, and journals involved in publishing articles on FGM/C were reviewed and analyzed. We indirectly assessed the impact of publications using total number of citations received, average number of citations per article, Hirsch-index, percentage of highly cited articles, and journal’s impact factor.

RESULTS: One thousand and thirty-five publications on FGM/C were retrieved. The h-index of retrieved articles was 37. A steep rise in number of publications was noticed in mid-1990s and again in 2012. More than half of retrieved articles were published from 2006 – 2015. A total of 65 countries contributed. The top ten productive countries included ones from Northern America, Europe and Africa. Nigeria and Egypt were the most active African countries in FGM/C publications. At least nine African academic institutions were actively involved on FGM/C publications. Articles on FGM/C that received the highest number of citations were those that focused on negative physical and psychosexual consequences of FGM/C. Journal topic areas were obstetrics/gynecology, public health, and psychological sociology. Collaboration between African and European countries on FGM/C research was evident.

CONCLUSION: Bibliometric analysis reveals that research publications on FGM/C have been increasing since the l970s, with collaboration between African and Western countries, and articles are being published in higher impact journals, not only obstetrics, but also public health and social sciences. FGM/C research can be helpful to international health agencies and governments not only to document negative outcomes, but also to identify best practices, and to note gaps in implementation and practice.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Grounded Theory A Methodology Choice to Investigating Labia Minora Elongation Among Zambians in South Africa

FREEInt J Qual Methods.

LMEGrounded Theory. A Methodology Choice to Investigating Labia Minora Elongation Among Zambians in South Africa

Martínez Pérez G, Mubanga M, Tomás Aznar C, Bagnol B

ABSTRACT

A study on how Zambian migrants living in Cape Town perceive and experience the implications of labial elongation on women’s health was conducted. Labia minora elongation (LME) is a genital modification that some women in east and southern Africa practice. This tradition is not common in Western Cape province (southwestern part of South Africa). The aim of this article is to discuss the methodological choices made in the design and conduct of this study, in which a White European male interviewed the female study participants on the health implications of a practice that is considered a woman’s private issue. Constructivist grounded theory informed by a feminist perspective was chosen as the most suitable methodological approach to enable cogeneration of knowledge with the female participants. The methods and tools used by the lead investigator facilitated access to the participants’ emic views. Grounded theory methodology holds the potential to be an appropriate methodological approach for researchers who seek to erode the power imbalances influencing research processes that aim to explore the associated meanings and health implications of female genital modifications, such as LME, as narrated by the women who practice them.

This article is available in this LINK

432 Somali women’s birth experiences in Canada after earlier female genital mutilation

Birth. 2000 Dec;27(4):227-34.
432 Somali women’s birth experiences in Canada after earlier female genital mutilation.
Chalmers B, Hashi KO
ABSTRACT
BACKGROUND: Women with previous female genital mutilation (sometimes referred to as circumcision) are migrating, with increasing frequency, to countries where this practice is uncommon. Many health care professionals in these countries lack experience in assisting women with female genital mutilation during pregnancy and birth, and they are usually untrained in this aspect of care. Somali women who customarily practice the most extensive form of female mutilation, who were resident in Ontario and had recently given birth to a baby in Canada, were surveyed to explore their perceptions of perinatal care and their earlier genital mutilation experiences.
METHOD: Interviews of 432 Somali women with previous female genital mutilation, who had given birth to a baby in Canada in the past five years, were conducted at their homes by a Somali woman interviewer.
RESULTS: Findings suggested that women’s needs are not always adequately met during their pregnancy and birth care. Women reported unhappiness with both clinical practice and quality of care.
CONCLUSIONS: Changes in clinical obstetric practice are necessary to incorporate women’s perceptions and needs, to use fewer interventions, and to demonstrate greater sensitivity for cross-cultural practices and more respectful treatment than is currently available in the present system of care.

Collecting data on female genital mutilation

BMJ. 2014 May 13;348:g3222. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g3222.

Collecting data on female genital mutilation.

Erskine K.

EXTRACT

Female genital mutilation is defined by the World Health Organization as “all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genitalia for non-medical reasons.” A horrendous form of child abuse, in its most extreme form (type 3) it involves removing the clitoris and labia and narrowing the vaginal introitus. More than 100 million women worldwide are affected.

The procedure has many complications including dyspareunia, sepsis, and death—procedure related mortality was estimated at 2.3% in one country.1 It is done for many reasons—there is no single religious basis. In some cultures a woman who has not undergone the procedure may be thought unmarriageable. In women with type 3 mutilation, the introitus may be too narrow for childbirth, and the tissues that have sealed together need to be separated; this is termed deinfibulation. Female genital mutilation was made an offence in 1985 in the United Kingdom, with a penalty of up to 14 years in prison.

A government declaration to end the practice …

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcomes: flawed systematic review and meta-analysis does not accurately reflect the available evidence.

Obstet Gynecol Int. 2014;2014:205230. doi: 10.1155/2014/205230. Epub 2014 Mar 20. FREE

Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcomes: flawed systematic review and meta-analysis does not accurately reflect the available evidence.

Meirik O, Banks E, Farley T, Akande O, Bathija H, Ali M.

EXTRACT

We commend Berg and Underland for taking on the momentous task of systematically reviewing and summarizing available data on the association between female genital mutilation (FGM) and obstetric outcomes [12]. FGM is an important health and human rights issue and reliable evidence on its effects on health is critical for advocacy to encourage its abandonment.

Despite the obvious hard work and adherence to a prespecified protocol, there are two major problems with this systematic review that undermine the validity of the conclusions reached.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

The relationship between female genital mutilation and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa.

Afr J Reprod Health. 2013 Dec;17(4 Spec No):156-60.FREE

The relationship between female genital mutilation and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa.

Olaniran AA.

ABSTRACT

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an age-old practice that has since been linked with many health problems. This review aims to highlight some of the controversies trailing the relationship between FGM and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. A literature search was conducted on the subject matter. This was done using articles published in English while limiting the geographical coverage to sub-Saharan Africa. Three themes were noted. These themes include: Direct causal link between FGM and HIV transmission; indirect causal link between FGM and HIV transmission and a negative or no association between FGM and HIV transmission. While many of the arguments are within scientific reasoning, the researches supporting the views seem to lack the necessary objectivity. This study underscored the need for a more objective lens in viewing and conducting research on the relationship between FGM and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa.

This article can be accessed in this LINK.

Trends in female circumcision between 1933 and 2003 in Osun and Ogun States, Nigeria (a cohort analysis).

Afr J Reprod Health. 2006 Aug;10(2):48-56.

Trends in female circumcision between 1933 and 2003 in Osun and Ogun States, Nigeria (a cohort analysis).

Adeokun LA, Oduwole M, Oronsaye F, Gbogboade AO, Aliyu N, Wumi A, Sadiq G, Sutton I, Taiwo M.

Association for Reproductive and Family Health, Ibadan, Oyo State. arfh@skannet.com.ng

ABSTRACT

The international movement against female circumcision gained momentum in the past two decades. Although recent studies report decline in the practice none has studied the cohort effect or provided plausible explanation for such decline. Changes in female circumcision occurring in two southwestern States of Nigeria between 1933 and 2003 were tracked in a cross-sectional survey using cohort analysis. 1174 female live births to 413 women were included in the analysis. About fifty-three percent of all females were circumcised. The prevalence dropped from 64.9% during the period 1933-60 to 25.7% for the period 2000-2003. For first order births, the corresponding rates were 58.8% and 25.0%. The decline for first-born females comes a decade before other birth orders. Age and education of mother are two main factors of the decline. Global consensus or legal enforcement plays secondary roles. Understanding how modernisation affects the decline in female circumcision should receive greater attention.

There is no LINK to view this article online.

Female genital mutilation: origin, beliefs, prevalence and implications for health care workers caring for immigrant women in Australia.

Contemp Nurse. 2007 May-Jun;25(1-2):22-30.

Female genital mutilation: origin, beliefs, prevalence and implications for health care workers caring for immigrant women in Australia.

Ogunsiji OO, Wilkes L, Jackson D.

School of Nursing, University of Western Sydney, NSW, Australia.

ABSTRACT

The recent wave of immigrants to Australia includes people from countries where female genital mutilation (FGM) is predominant. FGM is the terminology used by the World Health Organisation to describe all procedures involving partial or total removal of female external genitalia. A review of the literature has found that FGM still exists and the influx of immigrants to Western countries such as Australia has seen more women in these countries with the physical and psychological after-effects of the procedure. Findings of this literature review highlight the need for heightened awareness of issues around FGM so as to better provide adequate physical and psychological support to women affected by FGM.

There is no LINK to view this article online

Female genital mutilation: Experience in a West London clinic.

J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007 May;27(4):416-9.

Female genital mutilation: Experience in a West London clinic.

Gordon H, Comerasamy H, Morris NH.

ABSTRACT

The Wellwoman African Clinic, Central Middlesex Hospital, London, UK. z.whitlock@imperial.ac.uk In 1997, a new clinic was established at the Central Middlesex Hospital to serve the needs of a mainly Somali population who had suffered genital mutilation in childhood. Between June 1997 and January 2005, 4,125 clinic attendances were recorded. A total of 215 reversals of circumcision were carried out (FGM 3), all on a day-care basis. In the majority of cases, an intact and undamaged clitoris was found under the scar tissue. The clinic staff were able to draw attention to cultural and religious issues which proved important in the medical management of these women. The experience of this clinic has shown that where there is a large immigrant population of women from the Horn of Africa, clinics such as this are efficient and cost-effective and encourage women to attend with a variety of health concerns. The clinic also encourages these women to take their health concerns seriously.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Female genital mutilation: potential for HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa and prospect for epidemiologic investigation and intervention.

Afr J Reprod Health. 2007 Apr;11(1):33-42. FREE

Female genital mutilation: potential for HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa and prospect for epidemiologic investigation and intervention.

Monjok E, Essien EJ, Holmes L Jr.

Institute of Community Health, University of Houston, Texas Medical center, Houston, TX 77030, USA

ABSTRACT

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) which involves alteration of the female genitalia for non-medical grounds is prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa, associated with long-term genitourinary complications, and possible HIV transmission. This mini-review aims to examine FGM and the possibility of HIV transmission through this procedure. We performed an electronic search using Medline for articles published between 1966 to 2006 for evidence of FGM practice, its complications, and the nexus between this procedure and HIV sero-positivity. The results indicate ongoing FGM practice, albeit prevalence reduction, due probably to the increasing knowledge of the consequences of FGM as a result of non-sterile techniques. Secondly, the complications of FGM are well established which include Genitourinary disorders. Further, while data is limited on HIV transmission via FGM, there is biologic plausibility in suggesting that FGM may be associated with increasing prevalence of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper recommends further studies in order to assess the association between FGM and HIV transmission.

This article can be accessed in this LINK.