Tag Archives: Research Support as Topic

Financial support of research activities.

Adolescent sexual and reproductive health in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria–issues and challenges.

Afr J Reprod Health. 2007 Apr;11(1):113-24. FREE

Adolescent sexual and reproductive health in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria–issues and challenges.

Okonta PI.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State. Patrickokonta@Yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

There has been an increasing awareness of the need to pay special focus on the adolescent and their sexual and reproductive h
ealth. This article reviews the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in the Niger Delta region (NDR) of Nigeria. The objective is to bring to focus these important issues in the region. Adolescents in the NDR engage in unhealthy sexual behaviour characterized by early age at sexual initiation, unsafe sex and multiple sexual partners. The local socioeconomic condition exerts extra pressure on the adolescent with negative reproductive health consequences. There is urgent need to develop a time bound strategic framework and plan to redress this situation. This will require the participation of all stake holders.

This article can be accessed in this LINK.

Female Genital Mutilation in Benin

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. FREE

Country Fact Sheet: Female Genital Mutilation in Benin

NN.AA.

EXTRACT

… According to the 2006 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), which assesses the health of the country‘s population, 13 per cent of women between the ages of 15 and 49 have been subjected to FGM. This is a clear decline in numbers from the time of the 2001 survey, which showed an overall prevalence of nearly 17 per cent. The marked regional disparities in the prevalence of FGM are primarily the result of ethnic differences. The women most frequently cut are Bariba (74 per cent), followed by the Fulbe (72 per cent) and the Yoa and Lokpa (53 per cent)…

This document can be accessed in this LINK

Incontinence and trauma: sexual violence, female genital cutting and proxy measures of gynecological fistula.

Soc Sci Med. 2009 Mar;68(5):971-9. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.12.006. Epub 2009 Jan 6.

Incontinence and trauma: sexual violence, female genital cutting and proxy measures of gynecological fistula.

Peterman A, Johnson K.

University of North Carolina, Department of Public Policy, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3435, USA. apeterma@email.unc.edu

ABSTRACT

Obstetric fistula, characterized by urinary or fecal incontinence via the vagina, has begun to receive attention on the international public health agenda, however less attention has been given to traumatic fistula. Field reports indicate that trauma contributes to the burden of vaginal fistula, especially in regions wrought by civil unrest, however evidence is largely anecdotal or facility-based. This paper specifically examines the co-occurrence of incontinence and two potential sources of trauma: sexual violence and female genital cutting using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys in Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda and Ethiopia. Multivariate selection models are used to control for sampling differences by country. Results indicate that sexual violence is a significant determinant of incontinence in Rwanda and Malawi, however not in Uganda. Simulations predict that elimination of sexual violence would result in from a 7 to a 40% reduction of the total burden of incontinence. In contrast, no evidence is found that female genital cutting contributes to incontinence and this finding is robust for types of cutting and high risk samples. Results point to the importance of reinforcing prevention programs which seek to address prevention of sexual violence and for the integration of services to better serve women experiencing both sexual violence and incontinence.

This article can be purchased in this LINK.

Interventions for improving outcomes for pregnant women who have experienced genital cutting.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Feb 28;2:CD009872. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009872.pub2.

Interventions for improving outcomes for pregnant women who have experienced genital cutting.

Balogun OO, Hirayama F, Wariki WM, Koyanagi A, Mori R.

Department of Social and Preventive Epidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

BACKGROUND: Female genital cutting (FGC) refers to all procedures that involve the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons. There are no known medical benefits to FGC, and it can be potentially dangerous for the health and psychological well-being of women and girls who are subjected to the practice resulting in short- and long-term complications. Health problems of significance associated with FGC faced by most women are maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, the need for assisted delivery and psychological distress. Under good clinical guidelines for caring for women who have undergone genital cutting, interventions could provide holistic care that is culturally sensitive and non-judgemental to improve outcomes and overall quality of life of women. This review focuses on key interventions carried out to improve outcome and overall quality of life in pregnant women who have undergone FGC.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of interventions to improve all outcomes in pregnant women or women planning a pregnancy who have undergone genital cutting. The comparison group consisted of those who have undergone FGC but have not received any intervention.

SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (31 December 2012) and organisations engaged in projects regarding FGC.

SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomised trials or quasi-RCTs with reported data comparing intervention outcomes among pregnant women or women planning a pregnancy who have undergone genital cutting compared with those who did not receive any intervention.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We did not identify any RCTs, cluster-randomised trials or quasi-RCTs.

MAIN RESULTS: There are no included studies.

AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: FGC research has focused mainly on observational studies to describe the social and cultural context of the practice, and we found no intervention trials conducted to improve outcomes for pregnant women presenting with complications of FGC. While RCTs will provide the most reliable evidence on the effectiveness of interventions, there remains the issue of what is considered ethically appropriate and the willingness of women to undergo randomisation on an issue that is enmeshed in cultural traditions and beliefs. Consequently, conducting such a study might be difficult.

This review can be accessed in this LINK

Inconsistent reporting of female genital cutting status in Northern Ghana: Explanatory factors and analytical consequences

Stud Fam Plann. 2003 Sept 34(3): 200-210

Inconsistent reporting of female genital cutting status in Northern Ghana: Explanatory factors and analytical consequences

Jackson EF, Akweongo P, Sakeah EHodgson A, Asuru R, Phillips JF

ABSTRACT

Although many cross-sectional social surveys have included questions about female genital cutting status and correlated personal characteristics, no longitudinal studies have been launched that permit investigation of response biases associated with such surveys. This study draws upon the findings of a longitudinal study of women aged 15 to 49 in rural northern Ghana. The self-reported circumcision status of women interviewed in 1995 was compared with the status they reported when they were interviewed again in 2000 after the government began enforcing a law banning the practice and public information campaigns against it were launched. In all, 13 percent of respondents who reported in 1995 that they had been circumcised stated that they had not been circumcised in the 2000 reinterview; this inconsistency reached 50 percent for the youngest age group. Analysis shows that women who said they had not been circumcised are significantly younger, more likely to be educated, and less likely to practice traditional religion than are women who reported that they were circumcised. Factors that may explain these correlates of denial are discussed, and implications for research are reviewed.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

The effectiveness of a community-based education program on abandoning female genital mutilation/cutting in Senegal.

Stud Fam Plann. 2009 Dec;40(4):307-18.

The effectiveness of a community-based education program on abandoning female genital mutilation/cutting in Senegal.

Diop NJ, Askew I.

Population Council, Senegal. nafissatoud@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

A pre- and post-test comparison-group design was used to evaluate the effect of a community education program on community members’willingness to abandon female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) in rural areas of southern Senegal. Developed by TOSTAN (a Senegalese nongovernmental organization), the education program aimed to empower women through a broad range of educational and health-promoting activities. Our findings suggest that information from the program was diffused widely within the intervention villages, as indicated by improvements in knowledge about and critical attitudes toward FGM/C among women and men who had and had not participated in the program, without corresponding improvement in the comparison villages. The prevalence of FGM/C among daughters aged ten years and younger decreased significantly over time as reported by women who were directly and indirectly exposed to the program, but not among daughters in the comparison villages, suggesting that the program had an impact on family behaviors as well as attitudes. Findings from this study provide evidence-based information to program planners seeking to empower women and discourage a harmful traditional practice.

This article can be purchased in this LINK.

The relationship between female genital cutting and obstetric fistulae.

Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Mar;115(3):578-83. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181d012cd.

The relationship between female genital cutting and obstetric fistulae.

Browning A, Allsworth JE, Wall LL.

Barhirdar Hamlin Fistula Centre, Barhirdar, Ethiopia.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate any association between female genital cutting and vesicovaginal fistula formation during obstructed labor.

METHODS: A comparison was made between 255 fistula patients who had undergone type I or type II female genital cutting and 237 patients who had not undergone such cutting. Women were operated on at the Barhirdar Hamlin Fistula Centre in Ethiopia. Data points used in the analysis included age; parity; length of labor; labor outcome (stillbirth or not); type of fistula; site, size, and scarring of fistula; outcomes of surgery (fistula closed; persistent incontinence with closed fistula; urinary retention with overflow; site, size, and scarring of any rectovaginal fistula; and operation outcomes), and specific methods used during the operation (use of a graft or not, application of a pubococcygeal or similar autologous sling, vaginoplasty, catheterization of ureters, and flap reconstruction of vagina). Primary outcomes were site of genitourinary fistula and persistent incontinence despite successful fistula closure.

RESULTS: The only statistically significant differences between the two groups (P=.05) were a slightly greater need to place ureteral catheters at the time of surgery in women who had not undergone a genital cutting operation, a slightly higher use of a pubococcygeal sling at the time of fistula repair, and a slightly longer length of labor (by 0.3 day) in women who had undergone genital cutting.

CONCLUSION: Type I and type II female genital cutting are not independent causative factors in the development of obstetric fistulae from obstructed labor.

There is no link to view this article online

Social context of HIV infection in Uganda.

Health Transit Rev. 1995;5 Suppl:1-26.LME

Social context of HIV infection in Uganda.

Adeokun LA, Twa-Twa J, Ssekiboobo A, Nalwadda R.

Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

ABSTRACT

Some of the important policy and research implications of accumulating HIV/AIDS data are being ignored because of the attraction of social science research focused on the “multiple sexual mechanism’ of infection and transmission. Attention is drawn to the other policy and research issues relating to information on the timing of infection through a reanalysis of existing data on cumulative AIDS cases. The most urgent need is to supplement the mainstream research on risk groups with studies of the timing and circumstances of entry into sexual activity in the pre-teen years.

PIP:

Some of the important policy and research implications of HIV/AIDS data are being ignored because of the focus of social science research upon the multiple sexual mechanism of infection and transmission. Attention is drawn to the other policy and research issues relating to information on the timing of infection through a re-analysis of existing data on cumulative AIDS cases. However, the most urgent need is to supplement the mainstream research on risk groups with studies of the timing and circumstances of entry into sexual activity during the pre-teen years. The authors comment upon the social science response to the epidemic. This paper was written to help broaden the scope of discussion of the socioeconomic context of the rapid reproduction of infections and to focus upon the role of pre-teen girl-child sexuality in the dynamics of the epidemic.

There is no link to view this article online.

Vaginal practices as women’s agency in sub-Saharan Africa: a synthesis of meaning and motivation through meta-ethnography.

Soc Sci Med. 2012 May;74(9):1311-23. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.11.032. Epub 2012 Jan 28. LME

Vaginal practices as women’s agency in sub-Saharan Africa: a synthesis of meaning and motivation through meta-ethnography.

Martin Hilber A, Kenter E, Redmond S, Merten S, Bagnol B, Low N, Garside R.

University of Bern, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Finkenhubelweg 11, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland; Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Switzerland. amartinhilber@ispm.unibe.ch

ABSTRACT

This paper reports on a systematic review of qualitative research about vaginal practices in sub-Saharan Africa, which used meta-ethnographic methods to understand their origins, their meanings for the women who use them, and how they have evolved in time and place. We included published documents which were based on qualitative methods of data collection and analysis and contained information on vaginal practices. After screening, 16 texts were included which dated from 1951 to 2008. We found that practices evolve and adapt to present circumstances and that they remain an important source of power for women to negotiate challenges that they face. Recent evidence suggests that some practices may increase a woman’s susceptibility to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. The success of new female-controlled prevention technologies, such as microbicides, might be determined by whether they can and will be used by women in the course of their daily life.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Prevalence and associated factors of female genital mutilation among Somali refugees in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Public Health. 2009 Jul 27;9:264. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-264.FREE

Prevalence and associated factors of female genital mutilation among Somali refugees in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

Mitike G, Deressa W.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Eastern Ethiopia hosts a substantial number of refugees originated from Somalia. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common practice in the area, despite the campaigns to eliminate it.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 492 respondents sampled from three refugee camps in Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence and associated factors of FGM. Data were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaires.

RESULTS: Although the intention of the parents to circumcise their daughters was high (84%), 42.4% of 288 < or = 12 girls were reported being undergone FGM. The prevalence increased with age, and about 52% and 95% were circumcised at the age of 7-8 and 11-12 years, respectively. Almost all operations were performed by traditional circumcisers (81%) and birth attendants (18%). Clitoral cutting (64%) and narrowing of the vaginal opening through stitching (36%) were the two common forms of FGM reported by the respondents. Participation of the parents in anti-FGM interventions is statistically associated with lower practice and intention of the procedures.

CONCLUSION: FGM is widely practised among the Somali refugee community in Eastern Ethiopia, and there was a considerable support for the continuation of the practice particularly among women. The findings indicate a reported shift of FGM from its severe form to milder clitoral cutting. More men than women positively viewed anti-FGM interventions, and fewer men than women had the intention to let their daughters undergo FGM, indicating the need to involve men in anti-FGM activities.

This article can be accessed in this LINK