Tag Archives: Retrospective studies

Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

Clitoral keloids after female genital mutilation/cutting.

FREETurk J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Sep;13(3):154-157. doi: 10.4274/tjod.32067. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

Clitoral keloids after female genital mutilation/cutting.

Birge Ö, Akbaş M, Özbey EG, Adıyeke M.


We aimed to describe the presentation of long-term complications of female genital mutilation/cutting and the surgical management of clitoral keloids secondary to female genital mutilation/cutting. Twenty-seven women who underwent surgery because of clitoral keloid between May 2014 and September 2015 in Sudan Nyala Turkish Hospital were evaluated in this retrospective descriptive case series study. The prevalence of type 1, type 2, and type 3 female genital mutilation/cutting were 3.7%, 22.2%, and 74.1%, respectively (type 1: 1/27, type 2: 6/27, and type 3: 20/27). All patients had long-term health problems (dysuria, chronic pelvic pain, vaginal discharge, and chronic pruritus) and sexual dysfunction. Keloids were removed by surgical excision. There were no postoperative complications in any patient. Although clitoral keloid lesions can be seen after any type of female genital mutilation/cutting, they usually develop after type 3 female genital mutilation/cutting. Most of these keloids were noticed after menarche. Keloids can be removed by surgical excision and this procedure can alleviate some long-term morbidities of female genital mutilation/cutting.

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Female genital mutilation: Experience in a West London clinic.

J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007 May;27(4):416-9.

Female genital mutilation: Experience in a West London clinic.

Gordon H, Comerasamy H, Morris NH.


The Wellwoman African Clinic, Central Middlesex Hospital, London, UK. z.whitlock@imperial.ac.uk In 1997, a new clinic was established at the Central Middlesex Hospital to serve the needs of a mainly Somali population who had suffered genital mutilation in childhood. Between June 1997 and January 2005, 4,125 clinic attendances were recorded. A total of 215 reversals of circumcision were carried out (FGM 3), all on a day-care basis. In the majority of cases, an intact and undamaged clitoris was found under the scar tissue. The clinic staff were able to draw attention to cultural and religious issues which proved important in the medical management of these women. The experience of this clinic has shown that where there is a large immigrant population of women from the Horn of Africa, clinics such as this are efficient and cost-effective and encourage women to attend with a variety of health concerns. The clinic also encourages these women to take their health concerns seriously.

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Lower genital tract lesions requiring surgical intervention in girls: perspective from a developing country

J Paediatr Child Health. 2009 Oct;45(10):610-3. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1754.2009.01574.x. Epub 2009 Sep 14.

Lower genital tract lesions requiring surgical intervention in girls: perspective from a developing country.

Ekenze SO, Mbadiwe OM, Ezegwui HU.

Sub-Department of Pediatric Surgery, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. sebekenze@gmail.com


AIM: To determine the spectrum, outcome of treatment and the challenges of managing surgical lesions of lower genital tract in girls in a low-resource setting. METHOD: Retrospective study of 87 girls aged 13-years and younger, with lower genital tract lesions managed between February 2002 and January 2007 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, southeastern Nigeria. Clinical charts were reviewed to determine the types, management, outcome of treatment and management difficulties. RESULTS: The median age at presentation was 1 year (range 2 days-13 years). Congenital lesions comprised 67.8% and acquired lesions 32.2%. The lesions included: masculinized external genitalia (24), vestibular fistula from anorectal malformation (23), post-circumcision labial fusion (12), post-circumcision vulval cyst (6), low vaginal malformations (6), labial adhesion (5), cloacal malformation (3), bifid clitoris (3) urethral prolapse (3), and acquired rectovaginal fistula (2). Seventy-eight (89.7%) had operative treatment. Procedure related complications occurred in 19 cases (24.4%) and consisted of surgical wound infection (13 cases), labial adhesion (4 cases) and urinary retention (2 cases). There was no mortality. Overall, 14 (16.1%) abandoned treatment at one stage or another. Challenges encountered in management were inadequate diagnostic facilities, poor multidisciplinary collaboration and poor patient follow up. CONCLUSION: There is a wide spectrum of lower genital lesion among girls in our setting. Treatment of these lesions may be challenging, but the outcome in most cases is good. High incidence of post-circumcision complications and poor treatment compliance may require more efforts at public enlightenment.

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The lower prevalence of female genital mutilation in the Netherlands: a nationwide study in Dutch midwifery practices.

Int J Public Health. 2012 Apr;57(2):413-20.

The lower prevalence of female genital mutilation in the Netherlands: a nationwide study in Dutch midwifery practices.

Korfker DG, Reis R, Rijnders ME, Meijer-van Asperen S, Read L, Sanjuan M, Herschderfer K, Buitendijk SE.

TNO Innovation for Life, Leiden, The Netherlands. dineke.korfker@tno.nl


OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) in women giving birth in 2008 in the Netherlands.

METHOD: A retrospective questionnaire study was conducted.The study covered all 513 midwifery practices in the Netherlands. The data were analysed with SPSS 17.0.

RESULTS: The response from midwifery practices was 93%(n = 478). They retrospectively reported 470 circumcised women in 2008 (0.32%). The expected prevalence in the Netherlands based on the estimated prevalence of FGM in the country of birth was 0.7%. It is likely that there was under reporting in midwifery practices since midwives do not always enquire about the subject and may not notice the milder types of FGM. Midwives who checked their records before answering our questionnaire reported a prevalence of 0.8%.

CONCLUSION: On the basis of this study, we can conclude that FGM is a serious clinical problem in Europe for migrant women from risk countries for FGM. These women should receive extra attention from obstetricians and midwives during childbirth, since almost half are mutilated and FGM involves a risk of complications during delivery for both women and children.

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