Categories
Archives Blog Review

Bibliometric analysis of literature on female genital mutilation: (1930 – 2015)

Reprod Health. 2016 Oct 10;13(1):130.FREE

Bibliometric analysis of literature on female genital mutilation: (1930 – 2015).

Sweileh WM

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a common harmful traditional practice in many communities in Africa and to a lesser extent in Middle East and other regions in the world. In order to better understand publishing on this topic, we conducted a bibliometric study on FGM/C. Bibliometric analyses can be used as an indicator of the extent of interaction of researchers, health authorities, and communities with a particular health issue.

METHODS: Scopus database was used to retrieve data on FGM/C. Keywords used were “female genital mutilation”, “female genital circumcision”, “female genital cutting” and “female circumcision”. Specifically, the number of publications, top productive countries and institutions, highly cited articles, citation analysis, co-authorships, international collaboration, role of African countries, top active authors, and journals involved in publishing articles on FGM/C were reviewed and analyzed. We indirectly assessed the impact of publications using total number of citations received, average number of citations per article, Hirsch-index, percentage of highly cited articles, and journal’s impact factor.

RESULTS: One thousand and thirty-five publications on FGM/C were retrieved. The h-index of retrieved articles was 37. A steep rise in number of publications was noticed in mid-1990s and again in 2012. More than half of retrieved articles were published from 2006 – 2015. A total of 65 countries contributed. The top ten productive countries included ones from Northern America, Europe and Africa. Nigeria and Egypt were the most active African countries in FGM/C publications. At least nine African academic institutions were actively involved on FGM/C publications. Articles on FGM/C that received the highest number of citations were those that focused on negative physical and psychosexual consequences of FGM/C. Journal topic areas were obstetrics/gynecology, public health, and psychological sociology. Collaboration between African and European countries on FGM/C research was evident.

CONCLUSION: Bibliometric analysis reveals that research publications on FGM/C have been increasing since the l970s, with collaboration between African and Western countries, and articles are being published in higher impact journals, not only obstetrics, but also public health and social sciences. FGM/C research can be helpful to international health agencies and governments not only to document negative outcomes, but also to identify best practices, and to note gaps in implementation and practice.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Categories
Archives Blog Review

Female genital mutilation and transcultural nursing: adaptation of the Rising Sun Model

Contemp Nurse. 2016 Nov 29:1-7. [Epub ahead of print]

Female genital mutilation and transcultural nursing: adaptation of the Rising Sun Model.

Jiménez-Ruiz I, Almansa Martínez P

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a widespread practice mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa and is considered an affront on the dignity and health of women and young girls.

OBJECTIVES: To establish a theoretical model, inspired by that of Madeleine Leininger, in order to examine the reasonings used to justify FGM.

METHODS: Theorization through bibliographic review.

Resuts and conclusions: The factors used to justify this act are diverse and convert the tradition into a form of cultural care. From this viewpoint, nurses might evaluate the supposed justifications via the Rising Sun Model in order to redirect such a practice through nursing interventions such as: research into propagating factors, sensitizing through hindering factors or health education, highlighting the contradictions existent in the justification of FGM.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Categories
Archives Blog Review

Interventions for healthcare providers to improve treatment and prevention of female genital mutilation: a systematic review

BMC Health Serv Res. 2016 Aug 19;16(1):409. doi: 10.1186/s12913-016-1674-1.FREE

Interventions for healthcare providers to improve treatment and prevention of female genital mutilation: a systematic review

Balfour J, Abdulcadir J, Say L, Hindin MJ

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies on healthcare providers’ awareness, knowledge and attitudes regarding female genital mutilation (FGM) have shown a lack of awareness of the prevalence, diagnosis, and management of FGM. Our objective was to systematically review the literature on interventions improving healthcare providers’ capacities of prevention and treatment of FGM. METHODS: Systematic review of the published and grey literature on interventions aimed at improving healthcare providers’ capacities of prevention and treatment of FGM (1995-2015). Outcomes observed were knowledge and attitudes about FGM, medicalization, and prevention. RESULTS: Only two studies met our inclusion criteria. They reported on educational interventions aimed at increasing caregivers’ knowledge on FGM. One was conducted with 59 providers, in Mali; the other one with 11 certified nurse-midwives in the United States. The studies report basic statistics regarding the improvement of healthcare professionals’ knowledge, attitude on FGM and medicalization of the practice. Neither conducted multivariable analysis nor evaluated the training effects on the quality of the care offered, the clinical outcomes and the satisfaction of women attended, and prevention. CONCLUSION: As health care providers are essential in prevention and treatment of FGM, developing effective interventions is crucial.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Categories
Blog Original research

Female genital mutilation and cutting: a systematic literature review of health professionals’ knowledge, attitudes and clinical practice

BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2015 Dec 10;15(1):32. doi: 10.1186/s12914-015-0070-y.

Female genital mutilation and cutting: a systematic literature review of health professionals’ knowledge, attitudes and clinical practice

Zurynski Y, Sureshkumar P, Phu A, Elliott E

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that 100-140 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C). FGM/C is an ancient cultural practice prevalent in 26 countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. With increased immigration, health professionals in high income countries including UK, Europe, North America and Australia care for women and girls with FGM/C. FGM/C is relevant to paediatric practice as it is usually performed in children, however, health professionals’ knowledge, clinical practice, and attitudes to FGM/C have not been systematically described. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of the literature to address this gap.

METHODS: The review was conducted according to guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and registered with the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42015015540, http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ ). Articles published in English 2000-2014 which used quantitative methods were reviewed.

RESULTS: Of 159 unique articles, 18 met inclusion criteria. The methodological quality was poor – six studies met seven of the eight quality criteria. Study participants included mainly obstetricians, gynaecologists and midwives (15 studies). We found no papers that studied paediatricians specifically, but two papers reported on subgroups of paediatricians within a mixed sample of health professionals. The 18 articles covered 13 different countries: eight from Africa and 10 from high income countries. Most health professionals were aware of the practice of FGM/C, but few correctly identified the four FGM/C categories defined by WHO. Knowledge about FGM/C legislation varied: 25 % of professionals in a Sudanese study, 46 % of Belgian labour ward staff and 94 % of health professionals from the UK knew that FGM/C was illegal in their country. Health professionals from high income countries had cared for women or girls with FGM/C. The need to report children with FGM/C, or at risk of FGM/C, to child protection authorities was mentioned by only two studies.

CONCLUSION: Further research is needed to determine health professionals’ attitudes, knowledge and practice to support the development of educational materials and policy to raise awareness and to prevent this harmful practice.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Categories
Archives Blog eBook

The circumcision of women: a strategy for eradication

London, England; Zed Books: 1987.

The circumcision of women: a strategy for eradication

Koso-Thomas 0

ABSTRACT

Female circumcision is a traditional practice in many parts of Africa that has significant medical consequences. The main arguments in its favor, including cleanliness, aesthetics, improved health and social benefits, are refuted in this monograph. This practice was studied in Sierra Leone, where it affects 90% of females, and is carried out by secret societies. Female initiates are usually in their early teens and must undergo training and participate in elaborate rituals. The health effects vary with the typ of circumcision and the conditions under which it is performed. Immediate consequences include pain, hemorrhage, urinary tract problems, and serious infections. Scar formation leads to late sequelae of dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, pelvic infections and abscesses, hematocolpos, infertility, difficulty urinating, urinary tract infections and anal incontinence and fissures. Female circumcision is also a cause of later reproductive difficulty due to obstructed labor, resulting in several obstetrical complications. Psychological effects differ among women who have undergone it voluntarily, and those who have been forced to undergo this ritual, with the latter suffering much more psychologically. A pilot study of 135 people in Sierra Leone found that a significant number favor female circumcision and believe that it is essential to their culture. This attitude is related to illiteracy. In a survey of 300 women in Sierra Leone, tradition was the most common reason given for circumcision (85%), followed by social identity and religion. Circumcision was related to Muslim religion and inversely related to educational level. Statistical breakdown by tribe, method, complications, age, and attitude regarding circumcision is provided. A detailed strategy for the eradication of female circumcision is outlined.

This book can be accessed in this LINK

Categories
Archives Blog Review

Female circumcision as a public health issue

The New England Journal of Medicine. 1994;Sept 15:712-716FREE

Female circumcision as a public health issue

Toubia N

EXTRACT

In many civilizations, certain surgical procedures have profound cultural and social meanings. Male circumcision, for example, has deeb importance as a symbol of religious and ethnic identity and has played a major part in the political and social history of many peoples. Female circumcision has particularly strong cultural meaning because it is closely linked to women’s sexuality and their reproductive role in society…

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Categories
Archives Blog Review

Towards a gender perspective in qualitative research on voluntary medical male circumcision in east and southern Africa

Glob Public Health. 2015 Mar 2:1-13. [Epub ahead of print]

Towards a gender perspective in qualitative research on voluntary medical male circumcision in east and southern Africa

Martínez Pérez G, Triviño Durán L, Gasch A, Desmond N

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in 2007 as an effective method to provide partial protection against heterosexual female-to-male transmission of HIV in regions with high rates of such transmission, and where uptake of VMMC is low. Qualitative research conducted in east and southern Africa has focused on assessing acceptability, barriers to uptake of VMMC and the likelihood of VMMC increasing men’s adoption of risky sexual behaviours. Less researched, however, have been the perceptions of women and sexual minorities towards VMMC, even though they are more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS transmission than are heterosexual men. The purpose of this paper is to identify core areas in which a gendered perspective in qualitative research might improve the understanding and framing of VMMC in east and southern Africa. Issues explored in this analysis are risk compensation, the post-circumcision appearance of the penis, inclusion of men who have sex with men as study respondents and the antagonistic relation between VMMC and female genital cutting. If biomedical and social science researchers explore these issues in future qualitative inquiry utilising a gendered perspective, a more thorough understanding of VMMC can be achieved, which could ultimately inform policy and implementation.

This article can be accessed in this LINK