Tag Archives: Rural population

The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.

Perception and practice of female genital cutting in a rural community in southern Nigeria.

Afr J Reprod Health. 2012 Dec;16(4):132-9.FREE

Perception and practice of female genital cutting in a rural community in southern Nigeria.

Johnson OE, Okon RD.

Department of Community Health, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria. drjohnsonoe@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to determine the awareness and practice of FGC in a rural community in southern Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out among Ayadehe women in Itu, LGA Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Information obtained was analysed using SPSS version 17. A total of 218 respondents participated in the study. Majority, 215 (98.6%) were aware of the practice of FGC. Type 2 FGC was the commonest type reported by 71.2% of respondents. Prevalence of FGC was 92.7%. A total of 69.8% were circumcised at 6-12 years. Health complications experienced included excruciating pains, (36.6%), severe bleeding, (15.8%), and painful urination, (26.7%). Up to 53.5% were circumcised by traditional birth attendants. The belief that FGM should be discontinued increased with educational level. The practice of FGC was high in this community. Increased female education, community involvement and legislation are needed to reduce this practice.

This article can be accessed in this LINK.

Women’s attitudes towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation in Egypt.

J Inj Violence Res. 2010 Jan;2(1):41-5. doi: 10.5249/jivr.v2i1.33.FREE

Women’s attitudes towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation in Egypt.

Dalal K, Lawoko S, Jansson B.

Linköpings Universitet, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Centre for Medical Technology Assessment and Division of Social Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Linköping, Sweden. koustuv.dalal@liu.se

BACKGROUND: To examine women’s attitude towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation (FGM) in association with their access to information, knowledge of health effects and cultural beliefs concerning FGM in Egypt.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 9159 women, using data from the household survey in Egypt by Demographic and Health survey 2003. A comprehensive questionnaire covering attitudes towards FGM, demographics, and access to information was used. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were applied to investigate how demographics, level of education, access to information, knowledge of health consequences and cultural beliefs influence women’s attitudes towards FGM.

RESULTS: Among the demographic variables, discontinuation of FGM was independently associated with urban residency and post-secondary education. Moreover, women who were informed by the media, and those who had attended community meetings, church, or mosque where FGM was discussed, as well as women who were aware of the negative health consequences of FGM, were more likely to support discontinuation of FGM. By contrast, women with positive cultural conceptions of FGM were less likely to favor its discontinuation.

CONCLUSIONS: Public education and information dissemination aiming to change current cultural notions favoring FGM practice – through community and religious leaders, and radio and television programs – may play an important role in modifying women’s attitudes towards FGM. These findings have some implications for intervention and policy. ‎

This article can be accessed for free in this LINK

Reinfibulation among women in a rural area in Central Sudan

Health Care Women Int. 2001 22(8):711-721. 10.1080/073993301753339933

Reinfibulation among women in a rural area in Central Sudan

Almroth-Berggren V, Almroth L, Bergström S, Hassanein OS, El Hadi N, Lithell U
ABSTRACT

Reinfibulation is performed on women previously subjected to infibulation and who have given birth. To investigate the practice and attitudes concerning reinfibulation, we randomly selected for interviews 60 young women and grandmothers in a rural village in central Sudan. Reinfibulation was widely practised in this area. The main motive for performing reinfibulation was to satisfy the husband sexually. The young women saw themselves as passive in the decision process, claiming that the midwife and female relatives were behind the decision. Men were not involved in decisions to perform reinfibulation but seemed to play a supportive role when decisions were made not to perform it. Some young women had decided to break the pattern and not be reinfibulated. Through the interviews, we found that the practice carries the risk of several serious complications, which demonstrates that reinfibulation is an important health issue.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Prevalence and effects of violence against women in a rural community in Minia governorate, Egypt.

J Forensic Sci. 2011 Nov;56(6):1521-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2011.01886.x. Epub 2011 Aug 9.

Prevalence and effects of violence against women in a rural community in Minia governorate, Egypt.

Habib SR, Abdel Azim EK, Fawzy IA, Kamal NN, El Sherbini AM.

Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to investigate prevalence and the characteristics of domestic violence (DV) against women in a rural area in Minia governorate, Egypt, as well as its physical and psychological consequences. Seven hundred and seventy-two women were interviewed. Sociodemographic data were collected; the WHO questionnaire was used to identify the abuse; the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IIIR (SCID) to detect psychiatric disorders. Abused females constituted 57.4% of the total sample. There were significant relationships between DV and low education, low income, higher number of children, and husband’s education. Psychiatric disorders occurred in 18% of the sample. There were statistically significant relationships between psychological and physical abuse of women and the occurrence of psychiatric disorders. In conclusion, DV against women was related to various negative health outcomes, and it is recommended to be given its real importance in both Forensic Medicine Council and in psychiatric assessment.

This article can be purchased in this LINK.

The impact of health education on attitudes towards female genital mutilation (FGM) in a rural Nigerian community.

Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2008 Sep;13(3):289-97.

The impact of health education on attitudes towards female genital mutilation (FGM) in a rural Nigerian community.

Asekun-Olarinmoye EO, Amusan OA.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. estoaskol@yahoo.com

OBJECTIVES: To determine the level of practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) and the impact of a health education intervention in Shao community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intervention study using a multistage sampling technique. The instrument was a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. The survey was supplemented by an in-depth interview of the traditional excisors. RESULTS: Most respondents (88.0%) cited traditional excisors as operators of the procedure, while 7.8% mentioned health workers. Factors found to be statistically significantly associated with the practice of FGM are age, gender and educational status of respondents (p<0.05). The age at which FGM is usually performed was put at under one year old by 60.3% of respondents. All respondents cited type II FGM as the type practised in the community. Most (88.0%) of the female respondents were excised. A greater proportion of men than women did not want the practice of FGM stopped in the pre-intervention stage; however, there was a statistically significant decrease in the proportion of males who did not want the practice of FGM stopped in the post-intervention stage. Also, there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of respondents who had no intention to excise future female children in the post-intervention stage (p<0.05). Legislation, female literacy and empowerment, educating men and provision of alternative vocation for excisors were means suggested by respondents for stopping the practice. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: The health education intervention had a positive impact on the attitude of respondents towards FGM. However, for sustainable behavioural changes that will lead to elimination of FGM practice, we recommend placing FGM elimination efforts within a comprehensive development strategy and the larger context of reproductive health and gender education in Nigeria.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes to female genital mutilation (FGM) in Shao community of Kwara State, Nigeria.

Int Q Community Health Educ. 2006-2007;27(4):337-49.

Knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes to female genital mutilation (FGM) in Shao community of Kwara State, Nigeria.

Amusan OA, Asekun-Olarinmoye EO.

Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

To determine the level of knowledge, belief, and assess the attitude to female genital mutilation (FGM) and its complications in Shao community, Nigeria, a cross-sectional descriptive study with a health education intervention was used. A majority of respondents (99.5%) understood female circumcision to mean cutting off parts of the female genitals. There was a high level of knowledge regarding most of the complications of FGM as more than 50% of respondents knew at least four complications of FGM. Awareness of the global anti-FGM campaign was also high (78.8%). The most common reasons proffered for the practice of FGM were based on tradition or religion. Paternal grandfathers (50.0%) and fathers (21.0%) were cited as decision makers in the family most often responsible for requesting FGM. Post-intervention results showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of respondents who know more complications of FGM and who have no intention of circumcising future female children. Despite a high level of knowledge regarding the complications of FGM and a high level of awareness of the global campaign against it, there still exists a high prevalence of practice of FGM in this community. FGM remains a pressing human rights and public health issue. It is our recommendation that this health education intervention strategy be replicated nationwide especially using mass media.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Female genital mutilation and domestic violence among Egyptian women.

J Sex Marital Ther. 2001 Oct-Dec;27(5):593-8.

Female genital mutilation and domestic violence among Egyptian women.

Refaat A, Dandash KF, el Defrawi MH, Eyada M.

Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between female circumcision and domestic violence. Results showed that women who suffered from domestic violence and women who experienced genital circumcision shared many low socioeconomic and educational characteristics. Circumcised women were more likely to support continuation of female circumcision, to circumcise their daughters, and to accept the right of husbands to beat their wives.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Female genital mutilation: a descriptive study.

J Sex Marital Ther. 2001 Oct-Dec;27(5):453-8.

Female genital mutilation: a descriptive study.

Dandash KF, Refaat AH, Eyada M.

Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismalia, Egypt.

ABSTRACT

Female circumcision is one of the tradition still practiced in Egypt. It is a custom related to morals. In order to study its practice in Sharkia governorate, mothers of 352 girls between the ages of 14 and 16 years were interviewed. Results showed that 97.2% of girls in rural areas were circumcised, compared with 81.9% of the girls in urban areas. Of the various factors studied, we found that mothers aged 40 years and older, those married before the age of 20 years, housewives, illiterate mothers, and those living in rural areas more significantly practiced daughter circumcision. Regression analysis revealed that the level of the fathers’ education and the area of residence were the most significant factors influencing this practice. Fathers’ illiteracy and rural residence were the factors most responsible for its continuation.

This article can be purchased in this LINK

Female genital mutilation/cutting and issues of sexuality in Egypt.

Reprod Health Matters. 2010 Nov;18(36):181-90.

Female genital mutilation/cutting and issues of sexuality in Egypt.

Fahmy A, El-Mouelhy MT, Ragab AR.

UNFPA-Egypt, Cairo, Egypt.

Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), officially referred to as female circumcision and at community level as tahara (cleanliness), is still prevalent in Egypt. This study was designed to examine the role of female sexuality in women’s and men’s continued support for FGM/C, and their perceptions of its sexual consequences. The study was conducted in 2008-09 in two rural communities  in Upper Egypt and a large slum area in Cairo. Qualitative data were collected from 102 women and 99 men through focus group discussions and interviews. The clitoris was perceived to be important to, and a source of, sexual desire rather than sexual pleasure. FGM/C was intended to reduce women’s sexual appetite and increase women’s chastity, but was generally not believed to reduce women’s sexual pleasure. Men and women framed sexual pleasure differently, however. While men, especially younger men, considered sexual satisfaction as a cornerstone of marital happiness, women considered themselves sexually satisfied if there was marital harmony and their socio-economic situation was satisfactory. However, sexual problems, including lack of pleasure in sex and sexual dissatisfaction, for whatever reasons, were widespread. We conclude that political commitment is necessary to combat FGM/C and that legal measures must be combined with comprehensive sexuality education, including on misconceptions about FGM/C.

This article can be accessed in this LINK