Tag Archives: Sexual Behavior

Sexual activities of humans.

Effects of female genital mutilation/cutting on the sexual function of Sudanese women: a cross-sectional study.

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Jul;217(1):62.e1-62.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.02.044. Epub 2017 Mar 3. Effects of female genital mutilation/cutting on the sexual function of Sudanese women: a cross-sectional study.

Rouzi AA, Berg RC, Sahly N, Alkafy S, Alzaban F, Abduljabbar H.


BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice that involves several types of removal or other injury to the external female genitalia for nonmedical reasons. Although much international research has focused on the health consequences of the practice, little is known about sexual functioning among women with various types of FGM/C. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of FGM/C on the sexual functioning of Sudanese women. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at Doctor Erfan and Bagedo Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Eligible women completed a survey and a clinical examination, which documented and verified women’s type of FGM/C. The main outcome measure was female sexual function, as assessed by the Arabic Female Sexual Function Index. RESULTS: A total of 107 eligible women completed the survey and the gynecological examination, which revealed that 39% of the women had FGM/C Type I, 25% had Type II, and 36% had Type III. Reliability of self-report of the type of FGM/C was low, with underreporting of the extent of the procedure. The results showed that 92.5% of the women scored lower than the Arabic Female Sexual Function Index cut-off point for sexual dysfunction. The multivariable regression analyses showed that sexual dysfunction was significantly greater with more extensive type of FGM/C, across all sexual function domains (desire, arousal, lubrication,
orgasm, satisfaction, and pain) and overall. CONCLUSION: The study documents that a substantial proportion of women subjected to FGM/C experience sexual dysfunction. It shows that the anatomical extent of FGM/C is related to the severity of sexual dysfunction.

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The relation of female circumcision to sexual behavior in Kenya and Nigeria

Women Health. 2016 Jun 29:1-18. [Epub ahead of print]

The relation of female circumcision to sexual behavior in Kenya and Nigeria.

Mpofu S, Odimegwu C, De Wet N, Adedini S, Akinyemi J


One of the reasons for the perpetuation of female circumcision is that it controls female sexuality. In this study, the authors examined the relationship between female circumcision and the sexual behavior of women in Kenya and Nigeria. Data on women who were aware of circumcision and were circumcised were extracted from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey of 2008-09 as well as the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008. The sample size was 7,344 for Kenya and 16,294 for Nigeria. The outcome variables were age at first intercourse and total lifetime number of sexual partners. The study hypothesis was that women who were circumcised were less likely to have initiated sex early and to have only one sex partner. Cox proportional hazards regression and Poisson regression were used to examine the relations of female circumcision and other selected variables to sexual behavior. No association was observed between female circumcision and the outcomes for sexual behavior of women in Kenya and Nigeria. The argument of sexual chastity is insufficient to sustain the perpetuation of female circumcision.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Effect of female genital mutilation/cutting on sexual functions.

Sex Reprod Healthc. 2016 Dec;10:3-8. doi: 10.1016/j.srhc.2016.07.002. Epub 2016 Jul 28.

Effect of female genital mutilation/cutting on sexual functions.

Biglu MH, Farnam A, Abotalebi P, Biglu S, Ghavami M


BACKGROUND: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) or female circumcision is the procedure of eliminating some or all parts of the external female genitalia. FGM/C is carried out by traditional circumcisers. They usually use cutting tools like a blade or straight-razor. Although FGM/C is well described in the African continent and some Arabic countries, data from Iran are scarce.

OBJECTIVES: The major objective of this current study was to investigate the effects of FGM/C on the female sexual function of married women compared to the non-circumcised women in the Kurdistan province of Iran.

METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in a sample of 280 married women (140 circumcised-women and 140 non-circumcised-women) who referred to the healthcare centers for vaccination, midwifery, or family planning services. Participants were requested to complete the Persian-translated version of the Female Sexual Function Index.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The total score of the FSFI and its individual domains.

RESULTS: Of the circumcised women, 51.4% reported circumcision procedures before the age of 3 years. Religion motivation (53.6%) was mentioned as the most important factor for the family leading to FGM/C. Almost all operations were performed by traditional circumcisers. Non-circumcised women had significantly higher Persian-FSFI total score (25.3 ± 4.34) compared to the circumcised women (17.9 ± 5.39).

CONCLUSION: Sexual function in women with FGM/C is adversely altered. In Kurdistan province women, FGM/C is associated with reduction of scores of Persian-FSFI on all domain scores. Education in general and informing the people that FGM/C is not a religious Hadith certainly would have a great impact on the suffering of the women from FGM/C as well as the level of “desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain in the sexual function of women”.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Determinants of Elongation of the Labia Minora in Tete Province, Central Mozambique Findings of a Household Survey

African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2016; 20(2): 111-121.LMEFREE

Determinants of elongation of the labia minora in Tete Province, Central Mozambique: Findings of a household survey

Martínez Pérez G, Bagnol B, Chersich M, Mariano E, Mbofana F, Hull T, Martin Hilber A


A WHO-supported provincial-level population-based survey was conducted in 2007 to understand the determinants and implications forhealth of vaginal practices. A total of 919 women aged 18-60 were selected randomly for enrolment. This is the first population-based study of females in Tete Province, Mozambique. At some time over their lives, 98.8% of women had practiced elongation of their labia minora and a quarter (24.0%) had done so in the past month. Currently practicing women were more likely to have engaged in sex recently, and used contraceptives and condoms at last sex than women who had stopped labial elongation. Younger age, residence in rural areas and having two or more male partners were also determinants of current practice. Women commonly reported they practiced for no specific reason (62.8%). Discomforting itchiness and lower abdominal pain were more frequent in women who had stopped labial elongation than in women who were currently practicing. Although women may not report current vaginal ill health, it is possible that prospective cohort studies could uncover alterations in genital vaginal flora or other indicators of impact on women’s health. The findings of this study do not suggest that labial elongation is linked with high-risk behaviors for HIV transmission. .

This article can be accessed in this LINK

Autoerotism, homoerotism, and foreplay in African women who practice labia minora elongation: a review


International Journal of Sexual Health.2014, 26(4): 314-328.LME

Autoerotism, homoerotism, and foreplay in African women who practice labia minora elongation: a review

Martínez Pérez G, Bagnol B, Tomás Aznar C


Labia minora elongation is a female genital modification that some women in certain linguistic groups from Africa engage in. One of the purposes is to enhance sexual pleasure for their male partners. The literature has been reviewed to describe how it serves for women to increase their sexual pleasure, both as an autoerotic method and in the context of homoerotic and heterosexual relationships. This aspect deserves to be investigated, as there are narratives from some women practitioners of labial elongation that this practice might contribute to improve the sexual health of some of the women who engage in it.

This article can be accessed in this LINK

The Association of Female Circumcision with HIV Status and Sexual Behavior in Mali: A Multilevel Analysis.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Dec 27. [Epub ahead of print]

The Association of Female Circumcision with HIV Status and Sexual Behavior in Mali: A Multilevel Analysis.

Smolak A.


OBJECTIVE: In the regions of Africa where female circumcision (FC) is practiced it is often regarded as a protective against HIV infection because it is believed to help women resist “illicit” sexual acts. This study examines the association between FC, HIV status, and sexual risk behavior in Mali, while taking into account multilevel factors. The following hypothesis was tested: FC is associated with HIV positive status, but not with decreased sexual behavior.

DESIGN:: The sample consists of 13,015 Malian women of reproductive age (15-49 years old). The sample is a nationally representative survey of randomly selected respondents using a stratified multistage sampling strategy. Measures included biospecimens for HIV antibody testing and survey results reporting on: number of partners, sexual debut, premarital sex, and sociodemographics.

METHODS:: Multilevel modeling (MLM) was used to assess the significance of difference in HIV status and sexual behavior with FC. MLM was also used to adjust for age, education, ethnicity, wealth, religion, region, household, and community membership. Multiple imputation with 10 imputations corrected for 10% missing data.

RESULTS:: Participants with FC were at 2.100 (p<0.001; 95% CI: 1.844, 2.389) higher odds of being HIV positive. Women with FC did not significantly differ from women without FC in number of sexual partners (p=0.634), age of sexual debut (p=0.888), or odds of having premarital sex (p=0.575).

CONCLUSION:: FC is associated with HIV positive status, but not with a decrease in sexual risk behavior. These findings have important implication for FC and HIV prevention.

Adolescent sexual and reproductive health in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria–issues and challenges.

Afr J Reprod Health. 2007 Apr;11(1):113-24. FREE

Adolescent sexual and reproductive health in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria–issues and challenges.

Okonta PI.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State. Patrickokonta@Yahoo.com


There has been an increasing awareness of the need to pay special focus on the adolescent and their sexual and reproductive h
ealth. This article reviews the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in the Niger Delta region (NDR) of Nigeria. The objective is to bring to focus these important issues in the region. Adolescents in the NDR engage in unhealthy sexual behaviour characterized by early age at sexual initiation, unsafe sex and multiple sexual partners. The local socioeconomic condition exerts extra pressure on the adolescent with negative reproductive health consequences. There is urgent need to develop a time bound strategic framework and plan to redress this situation. This will require the participation of all stake holders.

This article can be accessed in this LINK.

African women and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: implications for female related cultural practices.

Int Q Community Health Educ. 2006-2007;27(1):87-94.

African women and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: implications for female related cultural practices.

Uwe EA, Ekuri EE, Asuquo PN.

University of Calabar, Nigeria. ekauwe2002@yahoo.com


Violence against women in Africa dates back to primordial society, where cultural practices such as female genital mutilation and polygamous marriages were prescribed and supervised by male-dominated social structures. Women’s status has always been at high risk, since such practices are male supervised. With the upsurge of the HIV/AIDS pandemic globally, research needs to focus on such cultural practices, the dangers of such practices, and possible eradication. The present article examines the change-resistant, prevailing religious, social, and psychological barriers to change.

This article can be accessed in this LINK.

The changing nature of adolescence in the Kssena-Nankana District of Northern Ghana

Stud Fam Plann. June 1999 30(2)95–111, June 1999

The changing nature of adolescence in the Kssena-Nankana District of Northern Ghana

Mensch BS, Bagah D, Clark WH, Binka F


This study reports the results of a primarily qualitative investigation of adolescent reproductive behavior in the Kassena-Nankana District, an isolated rural area in northern Ghana, where traditional patterns of marriage, family formation, and social organization persist. The study is based on in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions with adolescents, parents, chiefs, traditional leaders, youth leaders, and health workers, supplemented by quantitative data from the 1996 wave of a panel survey of women of reproductive age conducted by the Navrongo Health Research Centre. The social environment that adolescent boys and girls in the Kassena-Nankana District encounter and its links to reproductive behavior are described. The principal question is whether even in this remote rural area, the social environment has been altered in ways that have undermined traditional sexual and reproductive patterns. The survey data indicate a considerable increase in girls’ education and the beginning of a decline in the incidence of early marriage. The qualitative data suggest that social institutions, systems, and practices such as female circumcision that previously structured the lives ofadokscent boys and girls have eroded, leading to an apparent increase in premarital sexual activity.

Preparing for microbicide trials in Rwanda: Focus group discussions with Rwandan women and men

Culture, Health & Sexuality. 2006 8(5): 395-406 LME

Preparing for microbicide trials in Rwanda: Focus group discussions with Rwandan women and men 

N. Veldhuijzen, J. Nyinawabega, M. Umulisa, B. Kankindi, E. Geubbels, P. Basinga, J. Vyankandondera & J. Van De Wijgert


The acceptability and feasibility of microbicide studies and future microbicide use are influenced by existing norms and values regarding sexual and contraceptive behaviour. In preparation for microbicide research in Rwanda, focus group discussions were conducted to assess sexual and contraceptive behaviour, preferences for vaginal lubrication, and hypothetical acceptability of microbicides among Rwandan women and men. Seven focus group discussions were conducted among sexually active married women, unmarried women, sex workers, female students, older women and men living in Kigali, Rwanda, and an additional group of women living in a rural area. The results indicate that condom use is low among Rwandan men and women and that condoms are mainly used by men during commercial sex. Women have limited power to negotiate condom or family planning use. Vaginal hygiene practices are very common and consist primarily of washing with water. Lubrication during sex is highly preferred by both men and women. Hypothetical microbicide acceptability after an explanation of what microbicides are and a demonstration with lubricant jelly was high.

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